The First Art Newspaper on the Net   Established in 1996 United States Saturday, August 17, 2019


Research reveals new species are evolving fastest in Antarctica
Brittle Stars. Photo: Asher Flatt / Museums Victoria.


MELBOURNE.- New research, published in prestigious international journal of science Nature, overturns previous theories about how the stunning biodiversity of our oceans evolved, with important implications for conservation.

The paper, titled 'Contrasting processes drive ophiuroid phylodiversity across shallow and deep seafloors', was lead-authored by Senior Curator of Marine Invertebrates at Museums Victoria, Dr. Tim O'Hara.

Biologists have long speculated that evolution is "sped up" by relatively high tropical temperatures, with development being slower in cooler and deeper waters. However, this research finds that evolution does not follow one course, but rather depends on the geological, climatic and biological history of each ecosystem. Evolution proceeded differently in shallow and deep seas.

Speciation was found to be highest in the coldest region: Antarctica. These waters appear to still be recovering from extinction events of tens of millions of years ago, when ice sheets began to dominate, and water temperatures plummeted. New species that evolved as a result are still in the process of diversifying, and are doing so rapidly.

By contrast, although diversity in tropical deep seas (deeper than 200 metres) is high, it is not an environment that is rapidly producing new species, but rather accumulated its rich biodiversity over millions of years. Tropical deep seas are a refuge for ancient fauna, or 'living fossils'; mainly due to relatively stable conditions over time.

To study patterns of evolution across the world’s oceans, the team focused on the evolution of deep-sea 'brittle stars' (Ophiuroidea). These strange, spiny echinoderms with a typically circular body and five long, flexible arms, are abundant on the seafloor globally. Although they will be unfamiliar to many, their abundance makes them the perfect group for studying large-scale patterns of how marine life arose and spread around the planet.

The researchers utilised data collected on 2017's pioneering 'Sampling the Abyss' voyage aboard CSIRO Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator, led by Museums Victoria. The month-long expedition explored the abyssal ocean depths off the eastern coast of Australia for the first time. Dr. O'Hara was Chief Scientist on the voyage, and this publication is the first major paper to be published as a result of the voyage.

DNA was used to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of how brittle stars have evolved across the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the southern hemisphere. Dr. O'Hara explained, 'museum collections are a treasure house of preserved biodiversity collected from thousands of scientific expeditions. Sequencing the DNA from these specimens can unlock the history of life on our planet. He added, 'the digitisation and DNA sequencing of museum collections is providing a new way of looking at how life has evolved and spread around the globe.'

The deep sea is the world's largest ecosystem, an ancient ark of relics from the dinosaur era, where 'living fossils' survive at the same time that new species are fast evolving. These environments require as much protection as more famous and familiar habitats, like coral reefs and mangroves. Yet a lack of knowledge about marine life in these dark waters has made it unclear how best to protect and preserve these environments from human exploitation like fishing or deep-sea mining.

Dr. O'Hara and his team's paper is the result of what he hopes will be the first stage of a global project, to shed further light on processes of evolution in precious deep sea environments, and how we can best project them.

This new research was funded by the National Environmental Science Program Marine Biodiversity Hub, an Australian Government funded research consortium providing information and understanding to support marine biodiversity management and conservation. The research was supported by a grant of sea time on research vessel Investigator by the CSIRO Marine National Facility.





Today's News

January 24, 2019

Jonas Mekas, godfather of American experimental film, dies at 96

US university to cover Christopher Columbus murals

Gagosian opens an exhibition of over forty works on paper by Walter De Maria

Vancouver Art Gallery announces major gift toward new building and reveals final designs

Museum reveals time capsule from 1970 in major print series by Robert Rauschenberg

Over thirty sculptures by Claude and Francois-Xavier Lalanne on view at Kasmin

Zeit Contemporary Art opens the exhibition 'Minimal Means: Concrete Inventions in the US, Brazil and Spain'

Research reveals new species are evolving fastest in Antarctica

From space travel to augmented reality, Crystal Bridges looks for new ways to innovate

Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art opens exhibition of works by Polly Apfelbaum

Mexico celebrates as 'Roma' grabs 10 Oscar nominations

Exhibition at Fotohof offers an overview of Mark Steinmetz's work

Zimbabwean Afro-jazz legend 'Tuku' dies

Elephant presents a new collaboration between Anna Liber Lewis and Kieran Hebden

The Contemporary Austin presents an exhibition by artists Janine Antoni and Anna Halprin

Rare sledge from heroic Antarctic exploration offered at Bonhams

Exhibition takes a groundbreaking approach to net art history from 1985 to today

The Felicia Michalski Collection of Decorative Arts goes up for bid at Turner Auctions + Appraisals

The Wattis Institute opens solo exhibitions of works by Diamond Stingily and Rosha Yaghmai

All shook up: How Elvis keeps Aussie outback town alive

Safarkhan opens exhibition of works by Mohamed Abla

Gasworks presents Quantum Ghost, the first UK solo exhibition and a major commission by Libita Clayton

Pérez Art Museum Miami welcomes four new members to its Board of Trustees

Gray's Auctioneers sale features African sculptures, masks and jazz recordings

Most Popular Last Seven Days



1.- Conservation reveals Wellington Collection work was painted by Titian's Workshop

2.- New dinosaur discovered after lying misidentified in university's vaults for over 30 years

3.- Unseen Texas Chainsaw Massacre outtakes and stills sold for a combined $26,880

4.- National gallery reveals conserved Italian altarpiece by Giovanni Martini da Udine

5.- London's Tate Modern evacuated after child falls, teen arrested

6.- Bavarian State Minister of the Arts restitutes nine works of art

7.- Boy thrown from London's Tate Modern is French tourist visiting UK

8.- Child thrown from London gallery has broken spine, legs and arm

9.- £10 million Turner masterpiece may leave British shores

10.- Tourists banned from sitting on Rome's Spanish Steps



Museums, Exhibits, Artists, Milestones, Digital Art, Architecture, Photography,
Photographers, Special Photos, Special Reports, Featured Stories, Auctions, Art Fairs,
Anecdotes, Art Quiz, Education, Mythology, 3D Images, Last Week, .

 



Founder:
Ignacio Villarreal
(1941 - 2019)
Editor & Publisher: Jose Villarreal
Art Director: Juan José Sepúlveda Ramírez

Royalville Communications, Inc
produces:

ignaciovillarreal.org avemariasound.org juncodelavega.com facundocabral-elfinal.org
Founder's Site. The most varied versions
of this beautiful prayer.
Hommage
to a Mexican poet.
Hommage
       

The First Art Newspaper on the Net. The Best Versions Of Ave Maria Song Junco de la Vega Site Ignacio Villarreal Site
Tell a Friend
Dear User, please complete the form below in order to recommend the Artdaily newsletter to someone you know.
Please complete all fields marked *.
Sending Mail
Sending Successful