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Milestones

Fra Bartolommeo, Italian artist, died
At the beginning of 1508 Bartolomeo moved to Venice to paint a Holy Father, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Catherine of Siena for the Dominicans of San Pietro Martire in Murano, influenced somewhat by Venetian colorism. As the Dominicans did not pay the work, he took it back to Lucca, where it can be seen now. Also in Lucca, in the October 1509, he painted by Albertinelli an altarpiece with Madonna and Child with Saints for the local cathedral. On November 26, 1510 Pier Soderini commissioned him an altarpiece for the Sala del Consiglio of Florence, now in the Museum of San Marco. Two years later he finished another altarpiece for the cathedral of Besancon. -1517

Michelangelo gave the last strokes to "The Final Judgement"
In art, the Last Judgment is a common theme in medieval and renaissance religious iconography. Like most early iconographic innovations, its origins stem from Byzantium. In Western Christianity, it is often the subject depicted on the central tympanum of medieval cathedrals and churches, or as the central section of a triptych, flanked by depictions of heaven and hell to the left and right, respectively (heaven being to the viewer's left, but to the Christ figure's right). The most famous Renaissance depiction is Michelangelo Buonarroti's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel. Included in this fresco is his self portrait, as St. Bartholomew's flayed skin. -1541

Pierre Paul Puget, French artist, was born
His statue of Milo (Louvre) had been completed in 1682, Perseus and Andromeda (Louvre) in 1684; and Alexander and Diogenes (bas-relief, Louvre) in 1685, but, in spite of the personal favour which he enjoyed, Puget, on coming to Paris in 1688 to push forward the execution of an equestrian statue of Louis XIV, found court intrigues too much for him. He was forced to abandon his project and retire to Marseille, where he remained till his death. His last work, a bas-relief of the "Plague of Milan", which remained unfinished, was placed in the council chamber of the town hail of his native city. -1622

Dutch painter Jan Vermeer was born in Delft
He is now acknowledged as one of the great masters, but he remained forgotten for almost two centuries after his death until he was rediscovered by the French critic Thoré. He worked under the influence of Rembrandt and Caravaggio. -1632

Dutch painter Meindert Hobbema was born in Amsterdam
Pupil of J. van Ruisdael, he worked as a landscape painter in his native city. -1638

Comte de Caylus, French archaeologist, was born
He encouraged artists whose reputations were still in the making, and befriended the connoisseur and collector of prints and drawings Pierre-Jean Mariette when Mariette was only twenty-two, but his patronage was somewhat capricious. Diderot expressed this fact in an epigram in his Salon of 1765: "La mort nous a délivré du plus cruel des amateurs." Caylus had quite another side to his character. He had a thorough acquaintance with the gayest and most disreputable sides of Parisian life, and left a number of more or less witty stories dealing with it. These were collected (Amsterdam, 1787) as his oeuvres badines completes. The best of them is the Histoire de M. Guillaume, cocher (c. 1730). His Contes, hovering between French fairy tales and oriental fantasies, between conventional charm and moral satire, have been collected and published in 2005. -1692

French painter, illustrator and printmaker Philip Jacques de Loutherbourg was born in Fulda
During his stay in England he became a friend of Gainsborough. He is most famous for his invention of the "Eidophusikon", scenic effects of nature in theatrical performances. -1740

German painter Georg Friedrich Kersting was born in Güstrow
He started working in the porcelain manufacturing company Meissen. -1785

American architect Richard Morris Hunt was born in Brattleboro
Besides his architectural activities, he also worked on painting with Couture and on sculpture with Barye. He designed the Tribune building in New York (1873, one of the first with lifts) and the facade of the Metropolitan Museum, New York. He was one of the founding members of the American Institute of Architects. -1827

French painter Henri-Joseph Hesse was born in Paris
He debuted at the Salon in 1808 with his work "Young Woman Watching her Child Sleep". Throughout his artistic career, he created lithographs of famous people. -1849

Marie Laurencin, French painter, was born
During the early years of the 20th century, Laurencin was an important figure of the Parisian Avant-Garde. During the early years of the twentieth century, she was romantically involved with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire and has often been remembered as his muse. Laurencin has also been remembered as the only female Cubist, and while her work does show the influence of Pablo Picasso and of her close friend Georges Braque, she developed a unique approach to abstraction which often centered around the representation of women and female communities. Further, her work lies outside the bounds of the Cubist project in its attempt to develop a specifically feminine aesthetic through the use of pastels and curvilinear forms. -1883

Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian painter, died
Born Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva in Gavrontsy near Poltava, to a wealthy noble family, she grew up abroad, traveling with her mother across most of Europe. Educated privately, she studied painting in France at the Académie Julian, one of the few establishments that accepted female students. The Académie attracted young women from all over Europe and the United States. One fellow student was Louise Breslau who Marie viewed as her only rival. Marie would go on to produce a remarkable body of work in her short lifetime, the most famous being the portrait of Paris slum children titled The Meeting and In the Studio, (shown here) a portrait of her fellow artists at work. Unfortunately, a large number of Bashkirtseff's works were destroyed by the Nazis during World War II. -1884

French painter Marie Laurencin was born in Paris
She became the mistress of Apollinaire in 1908 and they celebrated their relationship with "The Guests" a group portrait that included figures such as Picasso. -1885

Egon Schiele, Austrian painter, died
In 1907, Schiele sought out Gustav Klimt. Klimt generously mentored younger artists, and he took a particular interest in the gifted young Schiele, buying his drawings, offering to exchange them for some of his own, arranging models for him and introducing him to potential patrons. He also introduced Schiele to the Wiener Werkstatte, the arts and crafts workshop connected with the Secession. In 1908 Schiele had his first exhibition, in Klosterneuburg. Schiele left the Academy in 1909, after completing his third year, and founded the Neukunstgruppe ("New Art Group") with other dissatisfied students. Sitzender weiblicher Akt, 1914Klimt invited Schiele to exhibit some of his work at the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, where he encountered the work of Edvard Munch, Jan Toorop, and Vincent van Gogh among others. Once free of the constraints of the Academy's conventions, Schiele began to explore not only the human form, but also human sexuality. At the time, many found the explicitness of his works disturbing. -1918

Helmut Newton, German photographer, was born
Newton settled in Paris in 1961 and began extensive work as a fashion photographer. His works appeared in magazines including, most significantly, French Vogue. He established a particular style marked by erotic, stylised scenes, often with sado-masochistic and fetishistic subtexts. A heart attack in 1970 slowed his output somewhat but he extended his work and his notoriety/fame greatly increased, notably with his 1980 "Big Nudes" series which marked the pinnacle of his erotic-urban style, underpinned with excellent technical skills. He also worked in portraiture and more fantastical studies. -1920

Art Deco was born
Last day of the "Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes" (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) in Paris. This show gave birth to Art Deco. -1925

Spanish painter Luis Feito was born in Madrid
He is regarded as one of the most important figures of informal Art. -1929

Zaha Hadid, British architect, was born
A winner of many international competitions, theoretically influential and groundbreaking, a number of Hadid's winning designs were initially never built: notably, The Peak Club in Hong Kong (1983) and the Cardiff Bay Opera House in Wales (1994). In 2002 Hadid won the international design competition to design Singapore's one-north masterplan. In 2005, her design won the competition for the new city casino of Basel, Switzerland. In 2004 Hadid became the first female recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, architecture's equivalent of the Nobel Prize. Previously, she had been awarded a CBE for services to architecture. She is a member of the editorial board of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 2006, Hadid was honoured with a retrospective spanning her entire work at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. In that year she also received an Honorary Degree from the American University of Beirut. -1950

Piet Mondrian Painting sold at Auction
Large Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow by Piet Mondrian was auctioned for $800,000 dlls. at Christie's, New York. -1978

Nikos Engonopoulos, Greek painter and poet, died
His first individual exhibition was held in 1939. Three years later, he finished his most popular long poem Bolivar, a Greek Poem, inspired by the revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar and published in 1944. The poem was also released in the form of a song, in 1968, with music by composer Nikos Mamangakis. -1985

Alfred Pellan, Québécois painter, died
Pellan's production is very large and varied. His early canvasses, from his first stay in Paris, show a marked fauvist influence. From the 1940s on, his works become closer to cubism and surrealism, then branch out into their own distinctive style. Though primarily a painter, Pellan used many different materials, including hooked rug and glass. He also did costume and set designs for the theater. -1988

Federico Fellini, Italian director, died
Fellini's films were widely acclaimed, and four of his films won the Best Foreign Film Oscar: La strada (1954) ; Le Notti di Cabiria (1957) ; 8 and a half (1963) and Amarcord (1973). Another film, La dolce vita (1960) is considered a seminal film of the 1960's, and was voted the sixth greatest film of all time by Entertainment Weekly. La dolce vita also contributed the term paparazzi to the language. The term derives from Marcello Rubini's (played by Marcello Mastroianni) photographer friend Paparazzo. In 1990, Fellini won the prestigious Praemium Imperiale awarded by the Japan Art Association. Considered as the equivalent of the Nobel Prize, the award covers five disciplines: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Theatre/Film. Past winners include Akira Kurosawa, David Hockney, Pina Bausch, and Maurice Béjart. -1993

Still-Life Paintings from the Netherlands, 1550-1720" at The Cleveland Museum of Art
The exhibition surveyed the entire golden age of this popular genre for the first time. Never had an exhibition drawn together 70 of the finest still life art in all their variety: vibrant flowers, tantalizing fruits, sumptuous banquets, laden market tables or desks, and the visual trickery of paintings known as trompe l'oeil ("fool the eye"). Artists represented included Rembrandt and nearly 50 of the countless lesser-known, gifted men and women whose works were once so sought after. The exhibition drew significantly from the collections of the CMA and the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The National Gallery in London, the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Mauritshuis in the Hague were among the 53 other museums and private collections throughout northern Europe and North America that lent works to the show. -1999

 


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