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Milestones

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, an Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman, was born in Genoa
Most of his works are scenes of the journeys of the patriarchs, drawn from the book of Genesis, filled with animals and still-life detail. Early biographers claim that he was also a prolific portrait painter, but few examples, save the so-called portrait of "Gianlorenzo Bernini", have been conclusively identified. He is celebrated for the virtuosity of his execution, most brilliantly revealed in his many pen-and-ink drawings, dry-brush oil sketches, etchings and monotypes. Some of his works are: "Sacrifice of Noah", "Apollo Belvedere", "Temporalis Aeternitas", "Theseus Finding his Father's Arms" and "Lucius Apuleius Changed into a Donkey". -1609

Pieter de Molyn, a Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher of English birth and Flemish descent, died in Haarlem
He employed an enormous variety of styles and subject matters, including dune landscapes, traveling people and wagons, cavalry battles, ambushes, winter scenes, cottages among trees and conversing and reposing peasants. The high point of his career came with his "Peasants Returning Home", a monumental work in the manner of Jacob van Ruisdael. He shows more imagination in the elaboration and arrangement of his designs like "River Valley", possibly created under the influence of the work of Hercules Segers. -1661

Enoch Seeman, an English painter, died in London
Seeman's earliest known painting is "Colonel Andrew Bisset and his Family", inscribed "Enoch Seeman", an ambitious group portrait, of somewhat uneven quality, in the manner of Godfrey Kneller. In 1717 he painted the well-known full-length portrait of "Elihu Yale", and in 1738 he created an exceptionally lively portrait of "Sir James Dashwood". His last and largest work is "Lady Cust and Nine Children". -1744

The painter and lithographer Hippolyte Flandrin was born in Lyon, France
He was a pupil of Ingres. He won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1832 with "Theseus Recognized by his Father". He went to Rome in 1833 where he developed a taste for religious works. He exhibited at the Salon several times and was elected to the Academy in 1853. -1809

William Aiken Walker, an American painter, was born in Charleston, South Carolina
Walker is considered to be one of the leading painters of the American South in the late 19th century. His paintings are of landscapes and still-lifes, and his most typical scenes depict the unchanging ways of the "Old South", often showing blacks working at domestic chores or out in the cotton fields as in "Cotton Plantation in the Mississippi". -1838

John Burley Waring, a British architect, designer and writer, died in Hastings, E. Sussex
In 1842 he entered the Royal Academy Schools, and after a brief trip to Italy during the winter of 1843-4 he returned to England to work as a draughtsman in a series of architectural firms, including those of Ambrose Poynter (1796-1886), Laing of Birken head, Robert Smirke and D. Mocatta. -1875

Hassan Fathy, an Egyptian architect, teacher and writer, was born in Alexandria
His early projects (1928-37) reveal his interest in the classical Beaux-Arts tradition, Art Deco and other trends fashionable in Europe at the time. Fathy's best-known project of this period is the village of New Gourna (1948), near Luxor, later made famous through his book Architecture for the Poor (1973). -1900

Ingebrigt Vik, a Norwegian sculptor, died in Oystese
Vik established himself as an independent carver, making Ivory reliefs and modeling small-terracotta figures in a naturalistic style. After a visit to the Exposition Universelle of Paris in 1900 he modeled the bronze "Worker", which reveals the influence of Constantin Meunier. In 1902 Vik won first prize in the competition for the Abel Monument in Kristiania (now Oslo), although Gustav Vigeland was later chosen to execute it. Other works include "Old Woman", "Seated Young Girl", "Youth" and "Edvard Grieg". -1927

Lucien Francois, a Belgian architect, furniture designer and teacher, died in Brussels
He was asked by Louis Van der Swaelmen and Jean-Jules Eggericx to take part in the construction of the garden cities Le Logis and Floréal at Watermael-Boitsfort, Brussels, where he built some 50 houses (1921-2). His mature work was devoted mainly to building private houses in Brussels and Brabant, some of which strongly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright's work, like the villa of Dr Libbrecht (1927) at Rixensart. His last major work was the design of a district of an old city for the Exposition Universelle et Internationale (1958) in Brussels. -1983

The exhibition "Vases and Volcanoes: Sir William Hamilton and his collection" was on view at the British Museum in London
Sir William Hamilton was the British envoy at the court of King Ferdinand IV of Naples in 1764. He collected art and antiquities and minutely recorded the activities of the Vesuvius volcano for the Royal Society. He was near by for the violent eruptions of 1767, 1779 and 1794, and he commissioned from local artists to paint the evocative scenes. This was also when the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum revealed the first major finds, and Sir William started his collection of antiquities, which he sold to the British Museum in 1772. The exhibition included Hamilton's collection of Greek painted vases, gold jewelry, cameos, gemstones, Old Master and contemporary paintings, bronzes and sculpture. -1996

It was reported that the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid added to its permanent collection six pieces that had just been purchased
Two of the works were a sculpture by Picasso entitled "Head of a Woman", 1908, and an oil painting by Juan Gris called "Fruit Bowl and Newspaper", 1920. -1997

The exhibition "Chocolate" was on view at the Collins Gallery in Glasgow, England
Chocolate had been used in contemporary art before, but Glasgow's Collins Gallery held the first exhibition to focus on new art influenced by and made of chocolate. "Our biggest fear was that all the exhibits would be perishable," said Laura Hamilton, curator of the gallery. The exhibits ranged from the humorous to the macabre. -1998

The exhibition "Art Flowers of Evil" opened at the Grosvenor Gallery in London
The latest exhibition from Sebastian Horsley was inspired by his experience of diving with Great White sharks off the coast of Australia. "I watched the sharks rip up great chunks of meat," he said. "The blood seemed to me like wounds bursting open like red blossoms in the sea. It was like a slaughterhouse of flowers." Horsley's paintings explore his grisly fascination with the link between beauty and horror, combining flowers with more disturbing images of sharks to demonstrate the "violence lurking beneath their petals". -1999

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art opened the exhibit titled "Paul Klee: Recent Acquisitions of the Djersassi Collection"
For more than a decade, Dr. Carl Djerassi has generously shared his collection of over 130 works by Paul Klee through frequent exhibitions at SFMOMA, making the Museum a destination for Klee enthusiasts worldwide. Ranging from clever figure drawings to watercolor landscapes of places familiar and fantastical, this exhibition featured many of Djerassi's most recent acquisitions, including a suite of remarkable Bauhaus promotional cards that appeared as a complete unit for the first time. -2000

 


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