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Milestones

Flemish painter Caspar de Crayer was born in Antwerp
He is regarded as one of the leading figures in Flanders after Ruben's death. Crayer is best-remembered for his paintings of altarpieces and portraits. -1584

French painter Pierre Mignard was born
He was the rival of Lebrun but an exponent of the same Academic theories. He went to Rome in 1636 and remained there until 1657, forming his style on the approved models of the Carracci, Domenichino and Poussin. He returned to Paris on the orders of Louis XIV and his principal importance was as portrait painter to the Court. He championed the Venetian or 'colourist' school. When Lebrun died in 1690 Mignard was at once made 'premier peintre', and, on the King's orders, the Academy had, in a single sitting, to appoint Mignard Associate, Member, Rector, Director and Chancellor of the body he had so long opposed. He died in Paris in 1695. -1612

French painter Eustache Lesueur was born in Paris
Pupil of S. Vouet, he created compositions with mythological and religious subjects. Subsequently, he followed Pussin's style, as evidenced in his 22 works "The Life of St. Bruno". -1617

St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated
There is a widespread assumption that the dome, or cupola, as it presently stands, was designed by Michelangelo, who became chief architect in 1546. In fact, Michelangelo's design called for a spherical dome. At the time of his death (1564), only the drum set, the base on which a dome rests, had been completed. The dome proper was redesigned and vaulted by the architect Giacomo della Porta, with the assistance of Domenico Fontana, who was probably the best engineer of the day. Fontana built the lantern the following year, and the finial was placed in 1593. -1626

Dutch painter Esaias van de Velde was born in Amsterdam
He is well-known for his detailed depictions of battles and for his exquisite landscapes. -1630

German architect Paul Decker died in Beyreuth
Apprentice to Shlüter, he designed buildings with a Baroque style in Erlange and Nuremberg. He is also famous for his books on art theory. -1677

Swiss painter Anton Graff was born in Winterthur
He specialized in half-length portraits with naturalistic poses. Many of his portraits were made for the courts of Saxony and Prussia. -1736

British painter and Sir David Wilkie was born in Cults
Inspired by Teniers and Ostade, he produced humorous representations of the bourgeoisie, and historical paintings. -1785

Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre was born in Cormeilles
French painter and physicist Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre was born in Cormeilles. He is best know for inventing the daguerreotype, the first process of photography. Daguerre, along with Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce, discovered that exposing an iodized silver plate in a camera would result in a lasting image if the latent image on the plate was developed by exposure to fumes of mercury and then fixed by a solution of common salt. -1787

Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French photographer, was born
The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, building on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. Niépce and Daguerre refined this process. Daguerre first exposed silver-coated copper plates to iodine, obtaining silver iodide. Then he exposed them to light for several minutes. Then he coated the plate with mercury vapor heated to 75° Celsius, to amalgate the mercury with the silver, finally fixing the image in salt water. These ideas led to the famous Daguerreotype. The resultant plate produced a mirror-like exact reproduction of the scene. The image was a mirror of the original scene. The image could only be viewed at an angle and needed protection from the air and fingerprints so was encased in a glass-fronted box. -1787

Dutch painter Frederik Joakim Skovgaard died in Copenhagen
He aimed to propel a new flourishing of mural painting. Besides his frescoes and murals, he also created tapestry designs and illustrations for books. -1856

First Woman Graduates in Britain
The first woman to graduate in Britain . She received her Bachelor of Arts degree from London University. -1880

English sculptor Frank Dobson was born in London
His work was influenced by the Vorticist style of Epstein and Gaudier-Brzeska. He achieved an immense dignity with his bronze and stone compositions. -1888

Italian architect Gio Ponti was born in Milan
A major exponent of Neoclassicist architecture, he designed numerous buildings, residential complexes and churches. His most important work is the Pirelli skyscraper in Milan. -1891

Joris Ivens, Dutch filmmaker, was born
Probably the best known of his early films is his 10-minute short Rain (Regen). Born into a wealthy family, Ivens went to work in his father's photo supply shop and from there developed an interest in film. He completed his first film at 13; in college he studied economics with the goal of continuing his father's business, but an interest in class issues distracted him from that path. Originally his work focused on technique--some argue that it had that focus at the cost of relevance, especially in Rain, filmed over 2 years and featuring impressive cinematography and a number of "characters" (but no information about them aside from what was visible) and in The Bridge (which showed a frank admiration of engineering and also featured a number of "characters" but again did not give any information about them). -1898

Jean Paul Lemieux, Quebec painter, was born
From 1926 to 1934, Jean Paul Lemieux studied under Edwin Holgate and others at the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal (Montréal School of Fine Arts). In 1929, he travels to Europe with his mother. In Paris, he studied advertising and art, frequents other artists. Lemieux took teaching positions from 1934, first at the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, then in 1935 at the École du meuble (Furniture School). In 1937, he moved to Québec City and taught at the École des Beaux-Arts de Québec until his retirement in 1965. His connections at that period include other major artists associated with these schools, such as Alfred Pellan and Paul-Émile Borduas. -1904

Richard Norman Shaw, architect, died in London
Born inEdinburgh, Scotland 1831. He was the most influential and successful of all Late Victorian architects in Great Britain. Shaw worked in many different styles during his 35-year career. He began as a High Victorian Goth. His last work, the Piccadilly Hotel in London, is Edwardian Baroque. Together with Nesfield, he pioneer both the Old English and Queen Anne styles of architecture in the late 1860s and early 1870s. -1912

Eric Gill died in Harefield, Uxbridge
Eric Gill, stone carver, wood engraver, essayist and typographer, died in Harefield, Uxbridge. Eric Gill was born in Brighton, England, on February 22, 1882. Early in life, he displayed a talent for drawing and a keen eye for proportion. In 1925, he created a new typeface known as Perpetua, and not long after that a sans-serif, to be called Gill Sans. They became an immediate success with the public. Gill Sans has in fact become the leading British sans-serif, sometimes being described as the "national typeface of England." Over the course of his life he designed eleven typefaces of exceptional beauty and subtlety, and wrote a lengthy and influential Essay on Typography. -1940

Wolfgang Joop, German artist, was born
Wolfgang Joop is an internationally successful German fashion designer. He is the founder of the fashion and cosmetics company JOOP! and is considered along with Karl Lagerfeld and Jil Sander to be a leading German figure in this industry. -1944

Man Ray, American artist, died
In 1999, ARTnews magazine named him one of the 25 most influential artists of the 20th century, citing his groundbreaking photography as well as "his explorations of film, painting, sculpture, collage, assemblage, and prototypes of what would eventually be called performance art and conceptual art" and saying "Man Ray offered artists in all media an example of a creative intelligence that, in its 'pursuit of pleasure and liberty,'" Man Ray stated guiding principles "unlocked every door it came to and walked freely where it would." -1976

Louise Bourgeois Retrospective in Madrid
The Centro de Arte Reina Sofía opened the retrospective exhibit on Louise Bourgeois. The artist could not travel to the exhibit. She is 88 years old. The exhibit includes ninety works of art. The exhibit begins with four oil paintings (1946-47) and a marble sculpture, from the Femme-maison series. It continues with the etchings "He Disappeared into Complete Silence" (1947). The five decades are represented by sculptures, installations and works on paper. -1999

 


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