NEW YORK (NYT NEWS SERVICE).-
Robbie McCauley, a performance artist, writer and director who often put race at the center of plays and other works that sought to alter perspectives and foster dialogue, died Thursday in Silver Spring, Maryland, where she had been living with her sister, Anita Henderson. She was 78.
Her family said the cause was congestive heart failure.
McCauleys resume included reimagining classic American plays through diverse casting and a stint in the ensemble of Ntozake Shanges groundbreaking 1976 Broadway show, For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow Is Enuf. But she was best known for shows she wrote and performed at venues like the Kitchen in Manhattan and Franklin Furnace in Brooklyn, in which she used her family and personal stories to confront universal issues.
My Father and the Wars, first performed in the mid-1980s, drew on her fathers time in the military, and on her relationship with him. Sugar, one of her most recent pieces, used her experience as a diabetic she would take an insulin shot onstage to examine the history and racial aspects of the disease, as well as Black peoples long distrust of the medical system.
Her most famous, and probably most searing, work was Sallys Rape, whose title refers to her great-great-grandmother. The piece, first performed at P.S. 122 in New York, began with McCauley and her performing partner, Jeannie Hutchins, a white woman, exchanging thoughts on race, their upbringings and other subjects, then built to an unsettling scene in which McCauley stood naked on an auction block while Hutchins goaded the audience into joining in the auctioneers slave-auction chant Bid em in effectively turning the tables on the audience, especially its white members, confronting them with the discomfort of history.
Robbie McCauley was the bravest artist I ever met, theater artist Daniel Alexander Jones said by email. Her practice was to enter highly charged spaces, take hold of third-rail subjects, breathe deeply, and then speak the seemingly unutterable in public. She often said to me, Find a way to house the contradictions rather than resolve them.
And yet even in a work as uncompromising as Sallys Rape McCauley was most interested in fostering dialogue, especially about subjects that people didnt want to talk about.
Her work was all about getting past that, writer Cynthia Carr, a longtime friend, said in a phone interview. It wasnt about judging so much as, Lets talk about this and lets get the truth out there.
Carr had firsthand experience with the McCauley doctrine. She said McCauley may have been the first person she told a secret that she had harbored since learning it as a teenager: that a grandfather of hers had been a member of the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. She had been reluctant to share such a thing with anyone, especially a Black friend, Carr said, but McCauley welcomed the revelation when they finally had the conversation in the early 1990s.
Robbie said to me, Those are the stories we need to hear that white people arent telling, she recalled.
Carr, who wrote about the exchange with McCauley in her 2007 book, Our Town: A Heartland Lynching, a Haunted Town, and the Hidden History of White America, said the lesson was clear.
Its like any relationship, she said. If you keep things hidden, theres only so far you can go.
Robbie Doris McCauley was born July 14, 1942, in Norfolk, Virginia. Her father, Robert, was a career military man, and her mother, Alice (Borders) McCauley, was a federal employee.
She received a bachelors degree from Howard University in 1963 and later a masters from New York University. She had made her way to New York after graduating from Howard, finding work with the Negro Ensemble Company and in avant-garde theater. Appearing in For Colored Girls, she said, pushed her to start telling her own stories.
In the late 1980s she joined with Laurie Carlos (another For Colored Girls alumna) and Jessica Hagedorn to form Thought Music, a performance-art group. Their work included Teenytown, presented at Franklin Furnace in 1988. It looked at race in popular culture through the format of a fast-paced minstrel show.
I think what I most admired about her as an artist was her honesty and fearlessness and courage, Hagedorn said of McCauley in a phone interview. Her willingness to take a risk.
Many of the racial themes she was broaching 30 years ago anticipated todays race-related debates.
She was so ahead of it, Hagedorn said.
McCauley also helped people find and tell their own stories. In 1990 she wrote and directed The Buffalo Project, working with local residents and artists in Buffalo to create a site-specific performance that revisited that citys race-related riots in 1967. In a series of multimedia performances produced by the Arts Company from 1990 to 1994, she worked with residents in Mississippi, Los Angeles and Boston to examine the history of voting rights, desegregation, the Black Panthers and other subjects.
She believed in peoples capacity for liberation, Jones said, and knew her gift as a performer was to demonstrate in real time that we can in fact face traumatic histories, move testimonies through our bodies, and remember our whole being in community with others. Our nation is starving for the kinds of courageous conversation that Robbie and her work engendered.
McCauley taught at various colleges over the years, including Emerson College in Boston from 2001 until her retirement in 2013.
At nearby Roxbury Community College some 15 years ago, she and Marshall Hughes reimagined American classics. Reginald Roses Twelve Angry Men became Twelve Angry Jurors, with the jurors no longer all being white men. Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire took on new elements of race and class when the Stanley Kowalski character was played by a Black actor. The Crucible, Arthur Millers play about the Salem witch trials, was staged to emphasize the character of Tituba, a slave from Barbados.
We are not reinterpreting the play, she told The Boston Banner in 2007, when The Crucible was staged. We are looking for larger possibilities by extending our imaginations.
McCauley married Edward Montgomery in 1979. Though they divorced in 1996, they remained close. In addition to her sister, she is survived by her daughter, composer Jessie Montgomery.
McCauley had in recent years been performing Sugar, the play about diabetes, in the hope of promoting the sort of dialogue about the disease that she had fostered about race with her earlier works.
Many, many people know diabetics, but were talking about breaking the silence, she wrote in The Boston Globe in 2013. Many people appreciate being let in on a process that even their relatives may not have shared with them.
Years earlier, in a 1999 interview with The Hartford Courant, she had spoken about her goals with all of her works.
My basic hope is simple, she said. Its that people might be able to have a good time with material thats charged and uncomfortable.
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