NEW YORK, NY.-
Wolfgang Petersen, one of a handful of foreign directors to make it big in Hollywood, whose harrowing 1981 war film, Das Boot, was nominated for six Academy Awards and became one of Germanys top-grossing films, died Friday at his home in the Brentwood section of Los Angeles. He was 81.
The cause was pancreatic cancer, according to Michelle Bega, a publicist at the agency Rogers & Cowan PMK in Los Angeles. His death was announced Tuesday.
Petersen was the most commercially successful member of a generation of filmmakers active in West Germany from the 1960s to the 80s, whose leading lights included Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders and Werner Herzog. But he was equally known in Hollywood.
Over five decades Petersen toggled between his native Germany and the United States, directing 29 films, many of them box-office hits like 1990s political thrillers In the Line of Fire, with Clint Eastwood, and Air Force One, with Harrison Ford.
With a knack for genre filmmaking action films were another strong suit he also made forays into fantasy (The NeverEnding Story), sword-and-sandal epic (Troy) and science fiction all while attracting marquee names to star in them, like Dustin Hoffman in Outbreak, Brad Pitt in Troy and George Clooney in The Perfect Storm.
For all his success in Hollywood, however, Das Boot, a tense drama about sailors on a German U-boat during World War II, is the work for which Petersen will mostly likely be remembered. In the English-speaking world, that frequently mispronounced title alone (Boot is spoken exactly like the English boat) has attained a kind of pop cultural status, thanks to references on The Simpsons and other TV shows.
Das Boot isnt just a German film about World War II; its a German naval adventure epic that has already been a hit in West Germany, Janet Maslin wrote in her review in The New York Times when the film opened in the U.S. in early 1982.
The movie won high praise for its historical accuracy and the clammy, claustrophobic effect achieved by cinematographer Jost Vacano, who shot most of the interior scenes with a small hand-held Arriflex camera. Although the critical response in Germany was divided, with some accusing the film of glorifying war, it encountered a more uniformly positive response abroad. Nowadays it is considered among the finest anti-war films ever made.
Das Boot (also titled The Boat in English-speaking countries) grossed more than $80 million worldwide, and although it did not win an Academy Award, its six Oscar nominations including two for Petersen, for direction and screenplay, and one for Vacano, for cinematography remain a record for a German film production. (It was not nominated in the best foreign language film category; West Germanys submission that year was Herzogs Fitzcarraldo, which did not make the shortlist for the Oscar).
Petersen prepared various versions of Das Boot over the next decade and a half. In 1985, German TV broadcast a 300-minute version (twice as long as the theatrical release), which Petersen said was closer to his original vision but commercially unfeasible at the time.
After Das Boot, he teamed up with producer Bernd Eichinger, whose fledgling studio, Constantin Film, co-produced the English-language The NeverEnding Story, an adaptation of a 1979 fantasy novel by bestselling German childrens author Michael Ende.
Released in 1984, The NeverEnding Story, about a bullied boy who enters into an enchanted book, was another box-office hit in Germany and abroad although it, too, received its share of negative reviews, including from Times film critic Vincent Canby, who called it graceless and humorless.
Despite a tepid U.S. box-office return, which Petersen chalked up to the films being too European, The NeverEnding Story became a cult favorite over the decades, for its trippy production design, scrappy special effects and synth-heavy theme song, written by Giorgio Moroder and sung by British pop singer Limahl.
The film was mostly shot at Bavaria Film Studio, near Munich, where present-day visitors can ride Falcor, the luck dragon that Canby compared to an impractical bath mat. (The studios theme park, Bavaria FilmStadt, also offers tours of the submarine from Das Boot.)
Wolfgang Petersen was born March 14, 1941, in Emden, in northern Germany. His father was a naval lieutenant in World War II who later worked for a shipping company in Hamburg, Germany.
Growing up in the immediate postwar period, the young Petersen idolized America and American movies. On Sundays he would go to matinee screenings for children at the local cinema to see Westerns directed by Howard Hawks and John Ford and starring Gary Cooper and John Wayne.
I got to know the medium of film when I was 8 years old, and I was immediately enthusiastic about it, he told Elfriede Jelinek, a future Nobel Prize winner for literature, in a 1985 interview for German Playboy. When I was 11, I decided I wanted to become a film director.
In 1950, his family moved to Hamburg, and when Petersen was 14, his father gave him an 8 mm film camera for Christmas.
After graduating from high school, Petersen was exempted from compulsive military service because of a spine curvature. In the early 1960s, he worked as an assistant director at the Junges Theater (now the Ernst Deutsch Theater) in Hamburg. He then studied theater in Hamburg and Berlin for several semesters before enrolling at the German Film and Television Academy Berlin, West Germanys first film school, which opened in 1966.
In 1970, his graduation film, I Will Kill You, Wolf, was picked up by West German television, and this led to a directing offer for the long-running German crime series Tatort.
Over the next decade, Petersen worked at a feverish pace, directing for television and the big screen, starting in 1974 with the psychological thriller One or the Other of Us.
From the beginning, audience approval was of central importance to him. I crouched in the cinema to see how the audience would react to one particular film, he recalled in the Playboy interview. And what happened? People walked out of the film. I was devastated. Because Im obsessed with making films for everyone.
He often succeeded, with popular early-career thrillers that tackled thorny political and social issues. Smog (1972) dealt with the effects of pollution in the Ruhr, an industrial region in northwest Germany. The Consequence (1977) was controversial for its frank depiction of homosexuality, a taboo topic at the time.
He was married to German actor Ursula Sieg from 1970-78. He later married Maria-Antoinette Borgel, whom he had met on the set of Smog, where she worked as a script supervisor.
He is survived by his wife as well as a son from his first marriage, Daniel, a filmmaker, and two grandchildren.
Petersen had nearly 20 films to his credit by the time he made Das Boot. A triumph that few, if any, could have predicted, the movie established his international reputation and opened the door to Hollywood.
In his autobiography, I Love Big Stories (1997, written with Ulrich Greiwe), Petersen recalled the first American test screening of Das Boot in Los Angeles. At the beginning, the audience of 1,500 applauded when the screen flashed with the statistic that 30,000 Germans onboard U-boats were killed during the war. I thought: This is going to be a catastrophe! Petersen wrote. Two and a half hours later, the film received a thunderous ovation.
After The NeverEnding Story, Petersen made Enemy Mine (1985), a science fiction film starring Dennis Quaid about a fighter pilot forced to cooperate with a reptilian enemy after they both land on a hostile alien planet. Maslin called it a costly, awful-looking science-fiction epic with one of the weirdest storylines ever to hit the screen.
A year later, Petersen moved to Los Angeles, where he would remain for two decades, working with big stars in a string of mainstream successes that included political dramas In the Line of Fire (1993), about a Secret Service agents efforts to prevent a presidential assassination, and Air Force One (1997), about the hijacking of the presidential jetliner. There were also disaster films Outbreak (1995), about a deadly virus, The Perfect Storm (2000), about commercial New England fishermen caught in a terrifying tempest, and Poseidon (2006), a remake of The Poseidon Adventure, a 1972 blockbuster about a capsized luxury liner.
Even at their most commercial, Petersens films often had undercurrents of political commentary. Discussing the Iliad-inspired Troy (2004), Petersen drew parallels between Homers epic and the reign of George W. Bush. Power-hungry Agamemnons who want to create a new world order that is absolutely current, he told German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung.
His film career seemed to come full circle in 2016 with Vier gegen die Bank, a remake of his 1976 comedy-heist film based on an American novel, The Nixon Recession Caper, by Ralph Maloney. It was Petersens first German-language film since Das Boot a quarter-century earlier.
Throughout his career, he seemed unconcerned by critics who called his artistic merit into question.
If someone asked me whether I felt like an artist, I would have a strange feeling, because I dont really know, he once said. What is an artist? Maybe its someone who produces something much more intimate than film, more like a composer or writer or painter.
My passion, he added, is telling a story.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times