Leonaert Bramer (15961674) from the Netherlands was one of the most prolific artists of the Dutch Golden Age. The specialism he carved out for himself was unusual and unrivalled: he produced hand-drawings that illustrated single copies of contemporary literary works and historical texts. The Staatliche Graphische Sammlung
, Munich , is home to two extensive sets of illustrations for Spanish novels which are now on display for the first time.
Leonaert Bramers series of hand-drawn illustrations
As a draughtsman, Bramer was among the most productive artists in Holland in the Golden Age. Around 1300 sheets are attributed to him today. The high number can be explained by the fact that his highly specialised work had no competitors, and nothing similar was produced at the time: his series of illustrations on mostly literary subjects were sold as one-off originals to connoisseurs and aficionados of draughtsmanship. Bramer completed a series of illustrations to accompany the Old and New Testaments, Ovids Metamorphosis and other ancient writings. He repeatedly also worked on lesser-known material largely neglected by other artists.
Lazarillo de Tormes
In 1646, he created 72 drawings for Lazarillo de Tormes, the first pícaro or picaresque novel ever written. These drawings are now on display in the exhibition. The book was first published in Spain in 1554, and was rapidly translated into different languages and distributed across Europe . The main character is the narrator Lazarillo, who struggles to get by in the milieu of beggars and rogues. In a series of loosely connected episodes, the drawings illustrate the real hardships suffered by the poor at the time. It begins with the merciless training of the protagonist, while still only a child, as a guide for the blind. Lazarillo only manages to survive by using his wits and resorting to petty crime. Lazarillo is still considered in Spain today to be the most important book of folk tales of all times; its unabated popularity is comparable to the significance of Grimms Fairy Tales on the German soul. The extremely anti-clerical novel was banned immediately, which hindered the publication of illustrated versions for a long time.
Francisco Gomez de Quevedo Los Sueños
Quevedos Los Sueños (Dreams), published in 1627, is regarded as one of Spain s first great literary novels. Francisco Gomez de Quevedo (15801645) came from a family that belonged to the Spanish gentry. Alongside his political career, he created a literary work punctuated by gloomy pessimism and harshly critical of Spanish society. His Sueños consists of cynical prose that aims to uncover abuses, vices and deceptions in all the professions and stations of the world. In a series of dream sequences, the narrator lands in the madhouse of lovers where he meets famous personalities from the past in various burlesque scenes. Bramer was the first to illustrate the work. The 60 drawings presented in the exhibition were made in 1659.
Bramer was an attentive reader who carefully and with obvious pleasure selected the most important passages to maintain the flow of narrative.
Todays viewers may see the humorous interjections in the recurring comic scenes as slapstick. In the large series, the drawings follow on from one another in rapid succession. As a result, Bramers approach has often been described as cinematographic, something which was first attributed to him as early as 1920. No contemporary illustrations from that time can compare with his work. After one thorough reading of the novel, the scenes would have been familiar to its readers, who could then appreciate the book of illustrations in its own right.
The decision to make an entire series of drawings and not reproduce them in print was peculiar. It opened up certain possibilities for a private audience, which would most definitely not have been acceptable for the general public. The artist plays with traditional motifs, provocations, and erotica which are interspersed throughout the work along with several blasphemous allusions. In a strict, Calvinistic society, it would have been inconceivable to create this work for general publication and distribution. Bramer had a circle of clients who gave him carte blanche, and also expected to be delivered with something special in return.
Leonaert Bramer was born on New Years Eve in 1596 in Delft , where he died in 1674 at the age of 78. Bramer set off on a grand tour in 1615 which took him to Italy . He lived there, mostly in Rome , until 1628. In this environment, he was particularly influenced by Adam Elsheimer (15781610) and the paintings of the Caravaggisti. Back in his hometown of Delft , Bramer was able to establish himself as a reputable painter. Approximately 350 paintings have survived to this day.