Seventeenth-century Italian artist Pietro da Cortonas Triumph of David also known as The Presentation of David to King Saul after Slaying Goliath, and colloquially as David and Goliath has hung in Villanova University
s library for more than five decades since the 12x19 oil on-canvas painting was gifted to the University. Only a handful of collections in the world contain works on canvas by this artist, and for an American collection to possess a painting of this magnitude attributed to Pietro da Cortona is even more uncommon. Like many older works, however, the painting has become discolored and degraded by over-paint and varnish from previous restoration campaigns.
To restore this important work and bring back the beautiful, vibrant colors associated with Pietros palette, Villanova University has commissioned conservators from The University of Delaware Art Conservation Department. Together with faculty and researchers from Villanovas Department of Chemistry, this interdisciplinary team will not only bring this work back to life, but will scientifically analyze the painting to trace its history and learn more about the artists materials and methods. Making the project even more distinctive is the fact that the work will take place in a publically-accessible venue in Villanovas Falvey Memorial Library.
The University is committed to this important project benefitting the academic community, as well as the art history and conservation community. To that end, lectures, classes and seminar courses focusing on the technical art history and conservation of the work will be scheduled on site in the Old Falvey wing of the library during the course of the project. The University also plans to have public tours and viewing times for the campus and area communities to visit the site.
I am delighted that this artistic treasure will be restored to its original grandeur, said the Rev. Kail C. Ellis, OSA, PhD, Vice President for Academic Affairs at Villanova University. Not only will the restoration be a workshop on the techniques of conservation for the artistic community, it will also be a classroom for students and faculty alike to discover the riches of this artist and the methods of bringing back to life a great masterpiece.
Conservator Kristin deGhetaldi from The University of Delaware is leading the restoration. Dr. Anthony Lagalante and Dr. Amanda Norbutus from Villanovas Department of Chemistry, along with graduate student Kristen Watts, will organize the conservation science research and analyze the materials and methods employed in the original artwork, as well as the restoration campaigns.
There are not a lot of oil paintings associated with Pietros circle in the U.S., and the sheer size of this painting makes it very unique, said conservator Kristin deGhetaldi. There is an increasing interest from the art history community to learn more about the materials and techniques associated with Old Master paintings, in addition to contemporary conservation procedures. The implications of this project will not only benefit Villanova, but will ultimately help to raise public awareness on conservation procedures, and educate the art history community about this painting and the artist.
The field of cultural heritage science is a collaborative effort between scientists, art historians, and conservators where we all play an integral part toward understanding and preserving a masterpiece such as this work attributed to Pietro da Cortona, Dr. Lagalante noted. As scientists, we can help conservators refine their conservation plan by identifying the materials used by the artist. Likewise, we can assist art historians by providing technical data to understand this rare painting on canvas within Pietros oeuvre.
The painting is presently covered with several layers of discolored and degraded over-paint and varnish. These unoriginal materials were applied during previous restoration campaigns, but have aged poorly, obscuring the artists beautiful colors. While the canvas is structurally sound, there are areas of lifting paint that will require consolidation and local humidification by the team. There are also scattered regions throughout the painting that were never filled and appropriately inpainted. Additionally, the current varnish is no longer serving its role as a protective and saturating surface coating.
The treatment of the artwork will require a number of steps and is expected to take close to two years. These conservation steps will include:
Unframing the artwork and performing photo-documentation
Consolidation of flaking/unstable paint
Local humidification to mitigate planar deformations
Removal/reduction of overpaint and degraded varnish(s)
Application of an isolation layer of stable, synthetic varnish
Applying inert fill material to losses in the paint layer
Retouching/inpainting fills and abraded areas using stable, reversible paints
Final application of a stable, synthetic, and saturating varnish coating
The process of examining and restoring the painting will provide Villanovas Chemistry Department, and its students, with the opportunity to learn more about historic painting materials, such as the pigments and binding media used by this artist, as well as the analytical techniques used in conservation (i.e. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, various imaging techniques, etc.).
What is amazing is that we can take a sample of paint the size of the period at the end of this sentence and analyze it with modern instrumentation to uncover information about how this artist painted almost 400 years ago, said Dr. Norbutus. We collaborate with professors and students in the chemistry, biology, and engineering disciplines for access to the shared instrumentation necessary to study this painting.
In addition to Villanovas Chemistry Department, History and Art History faculty at the University will also work in collaboration with the team during the course of the two-year project. Mark Sullivan, PhD, director of the art history program, along with Timothy McCall, PhD, associate professor of Art History, with his deep knowledge of Italian art and Old Master paintings, will provide expertise to the team as they examine the painting and the history of Pietros work, methods and materials.
Added Father Ellis, In a way, the original intent of the donor is enhanced by this project, namely to inspire students and all who work with them on the values of truth and beauty in the context of a liberal arts education.