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Smithsonian explores the history of Fourth of July food
This Weber Kettle grill, 1965-1970, is on display in Washington, D.C. at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History’s exhibition FOOD: Transforming the American Table 1950-2000. Photo: Richard Strauss, Smithsonian.
WASHINGTON, DC.- Independence Day is the perfect opportunity to fire up the grill, listen to some good old American music and enjoy a chest-thumping fireworks display. July Fourth celebrates the birth of the United States of America and honors the history that created a melting pot of different ethnicities and cultures. No Independence Day celebration would be complete without a picnic table filled with some traditional favorites: hamburgers, hotdogs, buns, kabobs, potato salad, ketchup and watermelon. But where did these July Fourth foods come from? Bruce Smith and Melinda Zeder, archaeologists at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, explain where and how it all began.

Meat and Poultry
Spanish explorers first brought domesticated livestock, including cattle, pigs and chickens, to the New World followed by European colonists in the 1500s. Before that, Taurine (hump-less) cattle were domesticated in southeastern Turkey and northern Syria more than 10,000 years ago. Around the same time, Zebu (humped) cattle were domesticated in south Asia. Taurine cattle began to spread into Europe around 8,000 years ago, reaching Britain about 3,000 years later. Like hump-less cattle, pigs were domesticated in the Near East and spread to Western Europe about 5,000 years later. Chickens descended from jungle fowl in Southeast Asia. While their history is a little unclear, they spread westward to present-day Israel about 3,000 years ago.

Grains, Fruits and Vegetables
Wheat was domesticated about 10,000 years ago in the Near East and spread to Europe about 5,000 years later. It came to the Americas on Christopher Columbus’ ships in 1492–1493. It quickly grew in settlements in the 1500s and 1600s. Tomatoes, native to northern South America, were brought to Europe in the 1500s and returned to the Americas by European colonists. Like tomatoes, potatoes were domesticated in South America 8,000 years ago. By 1781, Thomas Jefferson was serving tomatoes and French-fried potatoes at his dinner table. They were brought to Europe in the 1600s and arrived in North America around 1800 with European settlers. Watermelon was brought to the Americas by the Spanish around 1600 from central and southern Africa. It was quickly adopted by the Cherokee, Choctaw and other American Indian tribes.





Today's News

July 7, 2013

Metropolis: Fernand Léger and the city opens at Fernand Léger National Museum

Modern meets tradition: Pinakothek der Moderne exhibits works of art at Herrenchiemsee Castle

More than 40 new collages and three films by John Stezaker on view at Capitain Petzel

LACMA inaugurates permanent African art gallery with exhibition highlighting masterworks from central Africa

rosenfeld porcini presents mixed-media works by old master and contemporary artists

Exhibition with works by Ulrich Pester, Ralph Schuster, and Anna Virnich opens at Sprüth Magers Berlin

Christie's London Evening Sale of Old Master & British Paintings realises $36.3 million

Luhring Augustine presents exhibition of new oil on board paintings by William Daniels

Freeman's to sell photographs from the Avon Collection; 90+ works by female artists

Thomas Punzmann Fine Arts opens exhibition of works by C. Michael Norton

TRAFO Trafostacja Sztuki: New center for contemporary art to open in the north-west of Poland

abc art berlin contemporary to present around 130 individual positions in contemporary art

One hundred years on thousands still flock to legendary doctor's Gabon hospital

Smithsonian explores the history of Fourth of July food

Solo exhibition of Colombian artist Alberto Baraya opens at Galeria Nara Roesler

Artists re-imagine performance art, life-works, and social participation at Denny Gallery

VISIONQUEST gallery opens "Mutazioni" by Gian Luca Groppi

Eleven Hudson Valley photographers exhibit at the Saugerties Performing Arts Factory

Exhibition of drawings by Tom of Finland opens at Stuart Shave/Modern Art

Homo Oeconomicus: A pioneer of neo-conceptual art exhibits at Vienna's Secession

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