A groundbreaking new exhibition brings together the largest number of authentic Rembrandt paintings from American collections ever before assembled. Organized and presented by the North Carolina Museum of Art
, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts,
Rembrandt in America is the first major exhibition to explore how the desire for Rembrandt paintings by American collectors in turn fueled critical connoisseurship and research about the artists work. Rembrandt in America premieres at the North Carolina Museum of Art October 30, 2011, and then travels to the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in 2012.
The exhibition presents more than 30 autograph paintings by the Dutch master on loan from private collections and more than two dozen American art museums. It includes some of his finest masterpieces from the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
This exhibition is a visual treat of some of Rembrandts finest paintings now residing in American collections. The show also offers a rare opportunity for visitors to follow the evolving opinions of scholars regarding what makes for an authentic painting by Rembrandt, said Dennis P. Weller, curator of Northern European Art at the North Carolina Museum of Art.
The history of Rembrandt collecting in the United States began in the late 19th century, when wealthy American Industrialists cultivated a passion for collecting European Old Masters, especially Dutch. Americas greatest Industrialists, such as J. Paul Getty, Andrew Mellon and George Eastman, desired these works of art as trophies for their collections, and so a collecting frenzy erupted and paintings by Rembrandt left Europe in substantial numbers for America.
In this highly competitive and lucrative market many of the pictures that came to America were misattributed to Rembrandt by scholars and art dealers. In many respects, America became the proving ground for new Rembrandt discoveries and reattributions.
Rembrandt in America includes works such as the recently-cleaned, matching portraits of the Rev. Johannes Elison and his wife, Maria Bockenolle, from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Painted in 1634 during Rembrandt's early years as a successful portrait painter in Amsterdam, they are the only full-length portraits by Rembrandt residing in the United States.
Other highlights of the exhibition include Rembrandts moving depiction of the Roman heroine, Lucretia (1666), from the collection of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts; Joris de Cauerii (1632), a portrait of a gentleman, which displays Rembrandts masterful handling of light and texture from the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; and Young Man in a Black Beret (1666), from the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, a superb example of the artists expressive style.
By highlighting a number of works misattributed to Rembrandt, as well as a handful of paintings for which scholarly opinion has wavered over the years, this exhibition empowers viewers to develop their own skills in connoisseurship. Furthermore, Rembrandt in America occurs at a time when a heightened scrutiny of Rembrandt authenticity continues to impact the discipline and significantly affect the art market. Rembrandt collecting has always been a challenging field and questions of authenticity have plagued
Rembrandts for centuries, even during the artists own lifetime, said Jon L. Seydl, the Paul J. and Edith Ingalls Vignos, Jr. Curator of European Paintings and Sculpture (1500-1800) at the Cleveland Museum of Art. American audiences will now enjoy not only the opportunity to surround themselves with so many of Rembrandts works but also the chance to explore why some works attributed to him have been reconsidered.
Each venue will display 15 to 20 other Dutch paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt at some point during their history in American collections, but have since been ascribed to his pupils and contemporaries. These include paintings by Jan Lievens and Govaert Flinck, among others.
In the exhibition, The Feast of Esther (circa 1625) and Young Man with a Sword (c. 1633-1645) from the North Carolina Museum of Art are two such paintings formerly attributed to Rembrandt that are now assigned to other artists. In the 1950s the North Carolina Museum of Arts first director and Rembrandt expert William Valentiner recommended the acquisition of both paintings as Rembrandts. Valentiner was responsible for greatly expanding the Rembrandt oeuvre. For much of the last fifty years, many of his attributions have been questioned by other scholars, notably the Rembrandt Research Project.
The Feast of Esther is now assigned to the hand of Jan Lievens, Rembrandts younger colleague. The painting shares many similarities with other examples from Lievens oeuvre and has a grandeur of invention and boldness that Rembrandt did not achieve. Young Man with a Sword has since been identified as a product of the Rembrandt School. The imagery and stylistic elements, such as the weakness in the structure of the shoulders and face, indicate that the work is not by Rembrandt himself, while the dramatic chiaroscuro and romantic costume point to a competent painter well versed in Rembrandts artistic interests.
One of the most important painters in the history of European art, Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) is renowned for his uncanny ability to depict light and shadow, to capture the emotions of his sitters and to intimately share historical and religious stories. He was born in 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now The Netherlands, and spent most of his career in Amsterdam.
While the primary focus of the exhibition is on the history of Rembrandt collecting and connoisseurship as it relates to his works residing in America, the show also explores his work across various genres, his artistic evolution, and his influence on other artists of the day. Included in this exhibition are a number of important portraits from Rembrandts prosperous early career in Amsterdam as the citys most soughtafter portrait painter, as well as character studies, historical and biblical scenes, and three of his celebrated self-portraits.
Rembrandts development as a painter, from brash young artist to confident master to resolute observer of timeless humanity, is well documented in this exhibition with works spanning nearly the full extent of his remarkable career, said Thomas E. Rassieur, curator of prints and drawings at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.