NEW YORK, NY.- The Institute for the Study of the Ancient World
continues to illuminate the rich dialogue between the ancient and the modern with Hymn to Apollo: The Ancient World and the Ballets Russes, an exhibition exploring the seminal role of antiquity in shaping the radically new creations of the famed ballet troupe founded in 1909 by Sergei Diaghilev. The first exhibition to examine this topic, Hymn to Apollo contains around 95 objects, including outstanding examples of ancient pottery, sculpture, metalwork, and more, coupled with costumes, photographs, watercolors, musical scores, digitized films of Ballets Russes productions, and a rich trove of archival material.
Hymn to Apollo is on view from March 6 through June 2, 2019. It has been organized by ISAW and is co-curated by Clare Fitzgerald, Associate Director of Exhibitions and Gallery Curator, and Rachel Herschman, Curatorial Assistant, both at ISAW. Ballets Russes scholar Lynn Garafola served as an outside advisor.
Dr. Fitzgerald notes, Though the Ballets Russes was separated from ancient dance by two millennia, many of the companys artistic collaborators found a deep connection between their own work and that of antiquity. They were inspired by the freedom of movement seen in images on vases and in marble, the way that dance was integrated into the life of the community, and its ability to interact with its environment, both built and natural. These artists and composers looked to the ancient world not to reconstruct what was, but to build on an ethos that felt vital and relevant.
Ancient Greece left us tantalizing clues about the nature of dance in antiquity, with depictions of dancers in sculptures in the round and in relief, metalwork, vase paintings, frescoes, and other media. Yet without technical treatises or dance notation, ancient dance remains elusive, a lost art. What we do know, thanks to texts by authors including Plato, Petrarch, and Aristotle, to name only a few, is that it was performed, usually by a chorus, in conjunction with music, poetry, and theater one component of something like what would later be interpreted as a Gesamtkunstwerk, or total work of art; that it was central to religious rituals; and that it was believed to have the potential to express fundamental truths about the human condition.
The mysteries of the ancient rituals to which dance was integral attracted many early twentiethcentury artists, choreographers, and composers, who drew freely and imaginatively from the evidence provided by artifacts and texts, creating something radically new by looking back. In this they were helped by the numerous archaeological objects entering Western European museums and other collections and appearing in newspapers and magazines during the so-called golden age of archaeology.
Hymn to Apollo: The Ancient World and the Ballets Russes shows how this company brilliantly interpreted images and forms from ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt to pioneer radically new approaches to choreography, music, costume, and stage design.
Hymn to Apollo opens with a terracotta skyphos, or two-handled cup (375350 BCE), painted with a dancing maenad (a worshipper of Dionysus). While images like this figure did not represent actual dance steps, we can see that they did reveal poses and costumes that would offer a wealth of choreographic and formal inspiration to Ballets Russes collaborators. The dancer depicted here, for examplefull-figured and wearing a loose-fitting dress, her head thrown back in ecstasyprovides a vivid image of the Dionysian passion that would inform some of the Ballets Russes best-known productions.
A nearby photograph by Edward Steichen shows American dancer and choreographer Isadora Duncan (18771927) at the Parthenon. Duncanwho was wildly popular in Paris and St. Petersburgwas not a member of the Ballets Russes, but several figures who would go on to collaborate with the troupe attended her performances and were enthusiastic about her work. Known for lyrical choreography performed barefoot, in diaphanous, loose-fitting costumes, she was among the first and most influential artists to liberate ballet dancers from the restrictions of corsets, tutus, and pointe shoes, perhaps inspired by images like the Hellenistic statuette of a woman in flowing, loosely gathered drapery shown nearby.
Among those intrigued by Duncan and who drew on classical art and motifs in their own work was the Ballets Russes prolific set and costume designer Léon Bakst (18661924). This may be seen in a watercolor of a costume that Bakst designed for Tamara Karsavina, who danced the role of Chloé in the Ballets Russes production Daphnis and Chloé. The image shows how the Greek-inspired costumes designed by Bakst gave the Ballets Russes dancer greater physical freedom and more overtly expressive gestures than traditionally dressed ballerinas. Indeed, the figures powerful sense of movement and her provocative dress are reminiscent of the maenad on the skyphos described above.
Inspired, in part, by ancient art and mythological figures, the ballet L'Après-midi d'un Faune [The Afternoon of a Faun] choreographed for the Ballets Russes by Vaslav Nijinsky, is a story of sexual awakening. With music by Claude Debussy and scenery and costumes by Bakst, it tells the tale of a faun who pursues a group of nymphs on their way to bathe, frightening off all but one. When she too flees, dropping her scarf, the faun, danced by Nijinsky himself, finds the scarf and uses it to mime a final sexual gesture that scandalized audiences when the ballet was first performed.
L'Après-midi d'un Faune, which premiered in Paris in in 1912 and whose choreography was notated by Nijinsky in the score on view, alternated between movement and sculptural poses. Bakst hung his backdrop close to the footlights, creating a shallow space that, with the dancers arrayed in parallel lines in front of it, evoked an antique bas-relief.
Hymn to Apollo includes a group of stunning photographs of L'Après-midi d'un Faune taken by Adolf de Meyer (18681946), one of the preeminent photographers of the pre-World War I Ballets Russes. Seeking to create an environment that evoked a world apart, de Meyer used his own lighting schemes, shot some images through gauze, and elaborately retouched his negatives, giving his pictures a painterly quality. Maintaining both the shallow stage space created by Baksts designs and Nijinskys twodimensional treatment of space, the photographs too have the look of ancient relief carving.
Apollo was the god of music, poetry, knowledge, and healing, and stood for order and intellectual enrichment; he was half-brother to Dionysus, who is identified with devotion to the pleasures of the body. Apollo, too, inspired Ballets Russes productions, including Apollon Musagète (1928), choreographed by a young George Balanchine (who would later revise it for New York City Ballet) with music by Igor Stravinsky. Rather than representing Apollo as a heroic Olympian from the very outset, the ballet followed his growth from, in Balanchines words, a boy with long hair to his ascent to the peak of Mount Parnassus. Stravinskys score was for strings alone, a serene and transparent orchestration that inspired Balanchines choreography. Apollon Musagète is illuminated through photographs, a page from Stravinskys hand-written score, and a digitized audio recording of the music.
Ancient Egypt was the source for Cléopâtre [Cleopatra] (1909), a oneact ballet featuring ecstatic Dionysian movement, with choreography by Michel Fokine, scenery and costumes by Bakst, and music by a potpourri of Russian composers. Cleopatra was initially performed by the daring, strikingly beautiful, and erotic Ida Rubinstein, and Amoun by Fokine himself. Baksts dazzling costume for a female slave is on view in the exhibition, a multi-colored, multi-patterned dress that contains a frieze-like pattern of Egyptian-style figures in profile.
Baksts set and many of his costumes for Cléopâtre were destroyed in a fire on one of the company's many tours, and Diaghilev commissioned visual artists Sonia and Robert Delaunay to create new costumes and a new set. Watercolors and photographs of some of their designs show that while the artists looked to ancient Egyptian art for inspiration, their works were clearly conceived in a modernist register, as they straddle the line between abstract form and representation.
Bakst continued to have a working relationship with Ida Rubinstein after she left the Ballets Russes. One of their final collaborations was on Rubinsteins production of the ballet Phèdre (1923), represented here by an array of designs including costumes and stage props, such as an amphora with decorations bearing similarities to a vessel excavated from the Egyptian tomb of Sennedjem, on view nearby.
Another contemporary artist called upon to work with the Ballets Russes was Giorgio de Chirico, who designed both costumes and sets for Le Bal [The Ball] (1929), a tale of love, deception, and jealousy unfolding at a masquerade ball. While the story does not take place in ancient times, de Chiricos designslike his paintingswere nonetheless inspired by ancient landscapes and architectural ruins. As seen in a costume for a male guest, the artist painted architectural fragments directly onto the ensemble so that bricks, columns, and capitals come to life as the dancers move.
Le Bal was Diaghilevs final ballet before his unexpected death in 1929, but the companys new, modern vision of the ancient world was one part of its enduring legacy in the history of dance.