The First Art Newspaper on the Net Established in 1996 United States Thursday, November 27, 2014


Iconographic Analysis Conducted by Archaeologists on Murals Reveal Maya Military Life
Besides the deterioration of these vestiges, it was possible to establish that Mayas from different cities used similar arms, such as the axe employed to give lethal strikes. Photo: INAH/ H. Montano.
MEXICO CITY.- An iconographic analysis conducted regarding different Maya murals created in Prehispanic times, between 600 and 1000 of the Common Era, have allowed the hypothetical reconstruction of the way the milita was integrated in this culture; scenes studied refer to aspects like the command and armaments systems, as well as communications and tactics used at the height of this ancient civilization.

Until now, Bonampak frescoes, in Chiapas, and San Bartolo, in El Peten, Guatemala, were the most researched expressions to understand siege and defense tactics of Maya cities. Nevertheless, in 4 archaeological zones of northern Yucatan Peninsula there are mural paintings that bring in new information on the matter.

Eduardo Tejeda Monroy, archaeologist of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), presented a descriptive study of the images that integrate murals at Chichen Itza, Chacmultun and Mulchic, in Yucatan and Ichmac, in Campeche, during his recent participation in the 6th Permanent Conferences of Archaeology in 2010 at the Templo Mayor Museum.

Armaments
Besides the deterioration of these vestiges, it was possible to establish that Mayas from different cities used similar weapons, such as the axe employed to give lethal strikes; the curved stick that functioned as a club, and the dart-thrower used to attack enemies from distances up to 100 meters.

The INAH researcher detailed that the paintings found on the Chac Mool Temple pilasters, on the northwest colonnade of the Thousand Columns Group and the relief at the Inferior Temple of the Jaguars, both in Chichen Itza, military confrontation scenes can be appreciated where these combat artifacts are being used.

For their defense, Mayas from this zone used mainly a cotton breastplate hardened with salt and wood shields, as appreciated in frescoes found at the Temple of the Tables in Chichen Itza, mentioned Tejeda Monroy.

Configuration of the armies
Two different infantry bodies integrated the army: the short and long range combat groups, depending on the kind of weapons used, explained the specialist.

He added that the militia was organized and lead by several war chiefs, among them, the ruler, who distinguished himself by carrying elements that conferred him authority, such as great feather headdresses, ear and nose ornaments as well as pectorals.

The mural at the Temple of the Jaguars in Chichen Itza, is an example: it depicts the lord wearing a crown with 3 great white feathers, the same headdress is represented in the ornaments at the great ballgame court, symbolizing its sacred character.

“We still do not know if Maya troops worked full time or were gathered in times of war, neither how armies were supplied”.

Communication
According to images found in The Nuns Complex in Chichen Itza and Structure 3 at Chacmultun, both in Yucatan, and the Paintings Building in Ichman, Campeche, Maya armies used sound communication systems such as bugles, trumpets and drums, mentioned Tejeda.

These paintings show how soldiers painted their faces and torsos to distinguish them from their adversaries.

Tactics
By the scenes represented at the murals at these 4 sites, “it is inferred that Mayas managed the main combat formations: the line and the column, being the first the basic marching formation and the second, the initial battle position”.

We can determine that armies did not fight completely face to face, as Romans did, they looked to attack from different flanks to corner the enemy and leave it without the possibility of counterattacking, concluded Tejeda Monroy.





Today's News

October 14, 2010

The Audrey Hepburn Stamp: A Portrait of Eternal Beauty to Be Sold by Schlegel Briefmarken

Frieze Art Fair Features 173 of the World's Most Exciting Contemporary Art Galleries

Art World Acts to Save Energy and Money, Mayor Launches Green Visual Arts Guide at Frieze Art Fair

U.S. Collector and Gallery Owner Larry Gagosian Tops 2010 Art Review Power List

Exhibition at Yale Center for British Art Assesses the Career and Legacy of British Architect James Stirling

19th Century Quill Pen Given to Russian Prince Aleksander Gorchakov to Sell for £100,000 at Bonhams

Exhibition at Berlin's German Historical Museum Views Hitler's Hold on Germans

World Records for David Hockney, Aaron Young, Sterling Ruby & Dana Schutz at Phillips de Pury

Museum of American Finance To Display Jeweled Monopoly Set and Host Tournament

Iconographic Analysis Conducted by Archaeologists on Murals Reveal Maya Military Life

Royal Academy of Arts Announces Jeff Koons as New Honorary Member of the Royal Academy

Up to 100 Greek Culture Ministry Workers Shut Down the Acropolis, Clash with Police

Jewish Museum in New York Exhibiont Shows Key Works by Top Women Artists

Joshua Hagler and George Pfau: Nearly Approaching Never To Pass at Reaves Gallery

Michelle Obama Says She's Bringing the Arts to the White House to Lift Young People

3,500 Courtroom Sketches by Marilyn Church Heading for Library of Congress

Egypt's Chief Archaeologist Says United States to Return Smuggled Sarcophagi

Russian Claims to Uncover "Caucasian Stonehenge"

Exhibition at Cantor Arts Center Provides a Glimpse into the Practice of Modern-Day Vodou

Exhibition of New Installations, Light Works, Sculptures and Prints by James Turrell at Gagosian

North Sea Paintings by Distinguished Artist John Virtue on View at Marlborough Fine Art

LACMA Debuts World.Class European Costume Acquisition with Fashioning Fashion

National Gallery in London Invites Contemporary Artist Clive Head to Display His Work

New and Key Past Works in First Show by Marina Abramović on View at Lisson Gallery

Important Photographic Archive Acquired for Birmingham Central Library

Sotheby’s Announces the Inaugural Sale of Important Russian Art in New York

Personal Collection of Elton John's Mother Sheila Farebrother Offered to Music Fans Around the Globe

Navy Birthplace in Dispute; Five Communities Claim to Be the Navy's Birthplace

Thomas Moran's Early Landscape of Juniata Valley, Pa, is Acquired by National Gallery of Art

Galerie St. Etienne Shows Works by Max Beckmann's Student, Marie-Louise Motesiczky

Norman Dilworth's First Solo Show in Britain in Almost 30 Years Opens at Laurent Delaye

New Book Says Painting Stored Behind a Couch for 25 Years may Be a Michelangelo

Ex-J. Paul Getty Museum Curator Marion True's Trafficking Trial Ends in Italy

Sotheby's Launches App for iPhone and iPad

Most Popular Last Seven Days



1.- Greece holds breath as skeleton found in Alexander the Great-era tomb at Amphipolis

2.- Spain mourns the death of art collector Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, Duchess of Alba

3.- Meet the ancestors: Exhibition at Bordeaux gallery reveals faces of prehistoric humans

4.- Getty Foundation and partners launch free of charge online art collection catalogues

5.- Historic photos of dead Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara resurface in small Spanish town

6.- Exhibition showcases the first two 'Poesie' created by Titian following their restoration

7.- O'Keeffe painting sells for more than three times the previous world auction record for any female artist

8.- Crystal Bridges announces the departure of museum President Don Bacigalupi

9.- artnet Auctions offers a later example of Yayoi Kusama's important Infinity-Nets series

10.- 'Degenerate art' should go back to museums: German advisor Jutta Limbach



Museums, Exhibits, Artists, Milestones, Digital Art, Architecture, Photography,
Photographers, Special Photos, Special Reports, Featured Stories, Auctions, Art Fairs,
Anecdotes, Art Quiz, Education, Mythology, 3D Images, Last Week, .

 

Founder:
Ignacio Villarreal
Editor & Publisher: Jose Villarreal - Consultant: Ignacio Villarreal Jr.
Art Director: Juan José Sepúlveda Ramírez - Marketing: Carla Gutiérrez
Special Contributor: Liz Gangemi - Special Advisor: Carlos Amador
Contributing Editor: Carolina Farias

Royalville Communications, Inc
produces:

ignaciovillarreal.org theavemaria.org juncodelavega.org facundocabral-elfinal.org
Founder's Site. The most varied versions
of this beautiful prayer.
Hommage
to a Mexican poet.
Hommage
       

The First Art Newspaper on the Net. The Best Versions Of Ave Maria Song Junco de la Vega Site Ignacio Villarreal Site