For the first time in Italy, Rome, is set to pay tribute to the entire career of Edward Hopper (1882-1967), the 20th centurys most popular and best known American artist, with a major anthological exhibition that is the first of its kind in this country.
The exhibition presents more than 160 works, including famous masterpieces such as "Summer Interior" (1909), "Pennsylvania Coal Town" (1947), "Morning Sun" (1952), "Second Story Sunlight" (1960), "A Woman in the Sun" (1961) and various paintings that have never been exhibited, like the stunning "Girlie Show" (1941). It explores the whole of Hoppers oeuvre, and all the techniques used by an artist now viewed as one of the classic painters of the twentieth century.
The exhibition will be staged in Rome, at the Fondazione Roma Museum
, from February 16 to June 13, 2010, and then at the Fondation de lHermitage in Lausanne, from June 25 to October 17.
Hopper was born and grew up in Nyack, a small town in New York State. He studied illustration for a short period, then painting at New York School of Art under legendary masters William Merritt Chase and Robert Henri. He visited Europe three times (from 1906 to 1907, in 1909 and 1910) and his experiences in Paris, above all, made a lasting mark on him: he remained a lifelong Francophile, even after settling permanently in New York in 1913.
Despite his imposing physical presence he was six foot two he was famous for his reserve, and very rarely wrote or spoke about his work. He died at the age of 84 and his work enjoyed the esteem of critics and the public throughout his career, despite the success of the up-and-coming avant-garde movements, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art.
In 1948 the magazine Look named him one of Americas greatest artists; in 1950 the Whitney Museum dedicated an important retrospective to him, and in 1956 he appeared on the cover ofTime. In 1967, the year of his death, he represented the United States at the prestigious Bienal di São Paulo. Since then Hoppers work has been celebrated in numerous exhibitions and has inspired countless painters, poets and filmmakers. In a 1995 essay the great novelist John Updike paid an eloquent tribute to his calm, silent, stoic, luminous, classic works.
Edward Hoppers career is closely linked to the Whitney Museum of American Art, which hosted various exhibitions of his works from the first in 1920 at the Whitney Studio Club, to the memorable shows held in the museum in 1960, 1964 and 1980. Since 1968, thanks to the bequest of the artists widow Josephine, the Whitney has been home to his entire legacy: more than 3,000 works which include paintings, drawings and etchings.
Curated by Carter Foster, the Whitney Museum curator who granted the loan of the largest nucleus of works, the exhibition, realized with the technical coordination of Carol Troyen, also boasts other important loans from the Brooklyn Museum of Art in New York, the Terra Foundation for American Art in Chicago and the Columbus Museum of Art.
Structured in seven sections according to chronological order and theme, the Italian exhibition covers Hoppers entire oeuvre, from his education, to his years as a student in Paris, up to his classic and best-known period of the 1930s, 40s and 50s, closing with the large, intense images of his later years. The show explores all of the artists favorite techniques: oil, watercolor and etching, and devotes special attention to the fascinating relationship between his preparatory drawings and his paintings: a vital aspect of his work that up till now has not been greatly explored in the exhibitions dedicated to him.
The first three sections: Self Portraits, Education and Early Works. Hopper the Illustrator and Hopper in Paris, present a group of promising self portraits, the works from his academic period and the light-filled sketches and works of his Paris period, such as the well-known painting "Soir Bleu" (1914). The room dedicated to Defining the Image: Hopper the Etcher, with masterpieces such as "Night Shadows" (1921) and "Evening Wind" (1921), highlights his elegant technique and that sense of the incredible potential of everyday life that brought him great success and marked the start of a distinguished career.
The section entitled Hoppers Method: from Sketch to Canvas, which celebrates the artists extraordinary talent for drawing, and explores his modus operandi, presents a significant set of preparatory drawings for paintings such as "Morning Sun" (1952) and the earlier work "New York Movie" (1939), the sketches for which clearly reveal how his female figure takes shape: starting out almost as a portrait of his wife Jo (his only model), the figure gradually evolves into the pensive usherette with film star looks standing in the movie theatre one of the artists favorite subjects. This section shows how Hoppers realism is often the result of an amalgamation of several images and situations captured at different times and places, not a simple reproduction from life. The exhibition also exceptionally includes one of his Artists Ledger Book, the famous ledgers he and his wife compiled, and which contain sketches of many of his oil paintings.
In the rooms dedicated to Hoppers Eroticism the exhibition gathers some of his most significant images of women absorbed in contemplation, for the most part nude or partially undressed, alone in interiors. Together with the works in the section Artists Essence: Time, Space, Memory these works are a consummate representation of the artists aesthetic, his understated form of realism and above all his ability to reveal beauty in the most common subjects, often with a cinematographic slant that was much appreciated by the critics.
Hopper has long been associated with atmospheric images of urban buildings and the people who inhabit them, but rather than skyscrapers emblems of the aspirations of the jazz age he preferred the dilapidated red facades of anonymous shops, and lesser-known bridges. Some of his favorite subjects are images of life in tranquil middle class apartments, often glimpsed through a window from a passing train, and settings like diners and movie theatres; images that have acquired iconic status, as in some of the famous masterpieces presented here: "Cape Cod Sunset" (1934), "Second Story Sunlight" (1960) and "A Woman in the Sun" (1961). Hopper also painted some stunning watercolors during summers spent in Gloucester (Massachusetts), in Maine, and in Truro (Cape Cod) as of 1930. The sea rarely features in these paintings, which show sun-baked sand dunes, lighthouses and humble cottages, enlivened by sensuous contrasts of light and shade; paintings which always hint at a story yet leave the motivations of the protagonists unclear.
The exhibition also features an important photographic, biographical and historical component, tracing American history from the 1920s to the 1960s: the Depression, the Kennedys, the boom years. An opportunity for greater insight into todays global recession and Barack Obamas America.