The First Art Newspaper on the Net   Established in 1996 United States Friday, April 27, 2018

Fondation Cartier Brings to Light the Extraordinary Development of Graffiti
Today, graffiti has entered the cultural mainstream, crossing over to the realms of studio art, design and advertising.

PARIS.- The Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain presents Born in the Streets—Graffiti, on view from July 7 to November 29, 2009. Occupying the entire gallery space of the Fondation Cartier, as well as the building’s façade and surrounding garden, the exhibition brings to light the extraordinary development of an artistic movement that was born in the streets of New York in the early 1970s to rapidly become a worldwide phenomenon.

Today, graffiti has entered the cultural mainstream, crossing over to the realms of studio art, design and advertising. Yet, despite its immense popularity, this essentially illegal activity continues to evolve at the periphery of the contemporary art world, its origins and history little-known to the general public. This exhibition attempts to sketch the general contours of a subject that is vast and complex, a form of expression that has come to embrace many different techniques, ideas and styles.

The exhibition traces the origins of the graffiti movement while offering a panorama of the diversity of contemporary writing. It provides the public with the opportunity to rediscover an art both ubiquitous and continually evolving, and thus relate to the city in a new way.

Though the origins of graffiti can be traced to other major American cities, this mode of expression gained its true momentum in the New York of the early 1970s, in the streets of Manhattan, the Bronx, and Brooklyn.

Unlike previous types of writing on public walls, New York graffiti exploded throughout the city, evolving and developing rapidly, before entering the art world to become a media sensation. The first section of the exhibition traces the history of this cultural movement, from its beginnings to its global expansion and eventual recognition by the contemporary art world. It also presents some of the styles and techniques of graffiti writing, as well as the many key figures who contributed to its explosive development.

It all began in New York in the late 1960s. In a city on the verge of bankruptcy, teenagers began to write their names on walls and buses. Written with markers, and then spray paint, these signatures quickly spread throughout the city. This activity, called “writing”, attracted new followers every day. Coming primarily from the working-class Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights, and later from the Bronx, and Brooklyn, they were for the most part between the ages of 14 and 16, and belonged to the Hispanic and African-American communities.

The movement began with the “tag”, meaning a signature consisting of a writer’s pseudonym, often accompanied by the number of his or her street address. Julio 204, Taki 183, and Joe 182, like many others, aimed to spread their name as far across the city as possible. As early as 1971, in order to increase their visibility, writers chose the subway as their primary canvas. Initially, tags were confined to the interior of the car but, little by little, they found themselves on the train’s exterior, to be seen by commuters, pedestrians and most importantly, other writers. In order to distinguish themselves from one another, writers began to develop individual styles using original calligraphies for which they gained recognition. The simple tag soon evolved into a large outline that was later filled with patterns such as polka dots, stars, and arrows. Paintings such as these, which could also include comic book-inspired characters, were sometimes called “masterpieces”.

Later, the paintings increased in size to the point where they covered the entire exterior of the subway train, the first “whole-cars” appearing in 1974. Sketching in their black books, graffiti artists experimented with lines, shapes and patterns, carefully preparing the works they would paint on the trains. Faced with difficult and dangerous conditions, working often at night, in guarded train yards with little distance to view their work, the writers acquired great agility and a technical mastery of their medium. The stylistic approaches of great writers such as P.H.A.S.E. 2, Blade, Kase 2 and Dondi definitively left their mark on the movement, enriching it over the years with formal innovations.

The many documents presented within this exhibition—the photographs of Jon Naar, Henry Chalfant, Martha Cooper, and Flint Gennari, Coco 144’s previously unseen interviews with graffiti pioneers, the rare archives of Jack Stewart, and numerous films from the period—provide an exceptional account of this essentially ephemeral art form. The Fondation Cartier has commissioned three of the period’s most significant pioneers —P.H.A.S.E. 2, Part One, and Seen—to create monumental, large-scale wall pieces within the gallery space. These works, created specifically for the gallery space, reveal the significance of graffiti’s beginnings in New York, reaffirming the great vitality of the movement throughout its 40 year history.

The late 1970s and early 1980s was a period of significant transition within the graffiti movement, a period in which it gained recognition as part of a larger culture and moved beyond the city limits and the nation’s borders. The art world began to take an interest in graffiti with new galleries opening dedicated almost exclusively to graffiti artists.

Stefan Eins’ Fashion Moda (1978), one of the only galleries located in the Bronx, and Patti Astor’s Fun Gallery (1981) in the Lower East Side exhibited the first canvases of Lee, Dondi, Fab Five Freddy, Futura, Lady Pink, Crash, Daze, and many others. Working in studios, many writers started to experiment with new techniques and media. As a result, European galleries and institutions took an interest in their work and invited them to exhibit their art abroad. Simultaneously, others artists inspired by the explosive energy of graffiti art brought their practice to the street. Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring exhibited their work alongside the writers, forging friendships and artistic connections. Though their work was visually and conceptually different, these young painters shared with the New York graffiti artists a similar relationship to the city.

The New York phenomenon became known to a larger public through films that popularized certain major figures of the movement. The film Wild Style (1982), and the documentary Style Wars (1983) revealed, in particular to teenagers, the relationships between graffiti, breakdancing, and hip-hop. Indeed, for some graffiti artists the idea of a common street culture was closely linked to their practice, while for others, the worlds of breakdancing and hip-hop were completely unrelated to their work.

Musicians coming from the punk movement also connected with the energy of the graffiti movement, leading to new artistic collaborations. Groups like Blondie and The Clash, or Malcolm McLaren, manager of the Sex Pistols, invited Lee, Dondi, Fab Five Freddy, or Futura to participate in their music videos.

During this same period IGTimes, the first magazine to focus on contemporary urban youth culture, was created by the artist, David Schmidlapp, later joined by P.H.A.S.E. 2 as artistic director. Its circulation was limited, but it nevertheless reached Europe where graffiti was taking its first steps, most notably in Paris, London, and Amsterdam.

During the mid-80s, the anti-graffiti crusades led by the city of New York and its transit authorities had greatly intensified, eventually pushing many writers to abandon subway painting. Since that time, graffiti writers have nonetheless continued to use the urban environment as a realm of expression and in the second half of the 1980s, a new generation of artists emerged. JonOne, West, Ghost, SaneSmith, Sento, Reas, Wane and many others, have carried on the flame of their predecessors, inheriting their struggle with the authorities while continuing to change the visual landscape of the city.

In order to demonstrate the contemporary vitality of graffiti as well as its diversity of forms and styles, the Fondation Cartier has asked ten artists from different countries to create works and ephemeral installations specifically for the exhibition.

Chosen for the singularity of their approach and the force of their artistic vision, Basco Vazko, Cripta, JonOne, Olivier Kosta-Théfaine, Barry McGee, Nug, Evan Roth, Boris Tellegen/Delta, Vitché, and Gérard Zlotykamien present their work within the Fondation Cartier’s gallery spaces as well as on its glass façade.

In collaboration with the Association le M.U.R., the Fondation Cartier has also invitedartists to create large-scale posters, in the presence of the public, every first weekend of the month. These posters are exhibited at the Fondation Cartier for one month before being moved to the billboard of the association, located at the intersection of the Saint-Maur and Oberkampf streets in Paris. The artists participating in the project include Alexöne, the collectif 1980, Fancie, Jean Faucheur and WK Interact, Honet, NP 77, Poch, RCF 1, Sun7, and Tom Tom. In addition, L’Atlas, DTagno and Yseult have been invited to create unique and temporary works for the garden of the Fondation Cartier.

Through an important program of documentaries and films, the exhibition also shows how graffiti is practiced within the urban environment. These films focus on graffiti in action and bring to light the great variety of current writing styles and techniques. The documentary, Pixo, screened for the first time in the exhibition, presents an extraordinary form of graffiti that has developed uniquely in Brazil, known as pixação. In addition Agnès Varda’s film Murs Murs, screened twice a week, provides the opportunity to discover the muralists of Los Angeles at the beginning of the 1980s. From São Paulo to Amsterdam, San Francisco to Paris, graffiti today continues to evolve, adopting new forms and modes of expression.

Fondation Cartier | Manhattan | Bronx | Brooklyn | Jon Naar | Henry Chalfant | Martha Cooper | Flint Gennari |

Last Week News

July 7, 2009

Prince of Wales to Unveil Permanent Memorial to Honour the Victims of London Bombings

The World's Oldest Bible Reunited Online by British Library

Antony Gormley's Fourth Plinth Marathon was Launched Today

Darwin Family Portraits To Feature in Sotheby's Sale of Early British Paintings

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya Opens Gerda Taro Exhibition

Anselm Kiefer Designs Sets and Costumes for the Paris Opera

artnet Auctions Launches Sale of Urban Art 1972-Present

Perpetual Transitions by Kalliopi Lemos Installed at Onassis Cuktural Center

Miami Art Museum Names Elizabeth Marquardt as Chief Financial Officer

The Royal Ontario Museum Announces Star-studded Exhibition

Bellevue Arts Museum Announces Arts Fair

Different Things: A Flavour of International Contemporary Art from the IMMA Collection at Artlink Gallery

Multi-dimensional Exhibition Bringing Together Thirteen Organisations Opened at Contemporary Art Manchester

Spike Island Commissions Glasgow-based Artist Clare Stephenson to Develop New Installation for Summer 2009

Mandela Day Installation to Debut at Grand Central Terminal's Vanderbilt Hall

Standstill is a Particular Form of Movement: An exhibition with Eran Schaerf and Simon Wachsmuth

San Jose ICA Presents NextNew Exhibition - Summer Show Features Best of the New with a Twist of Green

A New Concept in Public Seating, both Sculptural and Interactive, Presented at Southbank Centre

Fred Bollerer Appointed Chief Operating Officer at the Corcoran Gallery of Art and College of Art + Design

A New Series of Theme Auctions of Contemporary and Culture to Launch at Phillips de Pury & Company

July 6, 2009

Rencontres d'Arles: 40 Years of the Rencontres, 40 Years of Ruptures to Open in France

The Americas Collection to Show Picasso Suite Entitled Imaginary Portraits

Design Museum in London Remembers Jan Kaplicky: Architect of the Future

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart Marks the Eightieth Anniversary of the Exhibition "Film und Foto"

Extraordinary Exhibition of Masterpieces of Victorian Art on View for the First Time in the Netherlands

Interview with Yann Gross:"Photography Permits Me to Discover What Surrounds our Everyday Life"

20th Century Masterpieces in Private Swiss Collections on View at Fondation de l'Hermitage

Fine Art Dealers Association Announces New President

Japan Society Gallery Showcases Rare Japanese Tin-Toy Vehicles

Second Edition of the Annual Satellite Programme at Jeu de Paume Features Irina Botea

Modern British Masters at Madejski Gallery in Reading

Phoenix City Council Supports Lease Agreement with Advocates for Latin@ Arts and Culture Consortium

Remowned Artist Kiki Smith to Receive 50th Edward MacDowell Medal in August

Exhibition of Paintings, Paper Reliefs and Photographs by Janet Boulton to Open at Edinburgh College of Art

The Arena of Ridicule: English Caricatures 1780-1830 Opens at Hamburger Kunsthalle

Tehran Museum of Contemporary Arts Shows for the Second Time its Western Art Collection

Impressions of California: Roses, Mt. Wilson and the West to Highlight Auction of California Paintings & Sculpture

Kresge Foundation Awards $450,000 in Fellowships to Detroit Area Visual Artists

The Vision and Value of Arts in the City

July 5, 2009

Edouard Manet's The Boy with Cherries Visits Bilbao Museum of Fine Arts as Guest Work

Ball Parks: Jim Dow's Photographs of Baseball Stadiums Opens at the National Gallery Canada

Wide Range of Works in a Variety of Media by Matthew Buckingham at Museo Reina Sofia

The Vauxhall Collective: The UK's Most Talented and Exciting Creatives Exhibit their Commissions

Internationally Renowned Artists Help Put the 'Art' Back into Street Art

Pierre Bal-Blanc Curates The Death of the Audience for Vienna's Secession

Andrea Zittel's Travelling Enterprise "Smockshop" will be Presented at London Fashion Week

Walid Raad Solo Show as Part of the XV Advanced Course in Visual Arts of the Fondazione Antonio Ratti

The Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art Presents A Room of Their Own

The Art Fund Celebrates Legendary Photographer Diane Arbus

Joslyn Art Museum Presents Exhibition of Mexican Folk Art from Private Local Collection

Woodson Art Museum Awarded Alzheimer's Grant

National Constitution Center to Host Groundbreaking Civic Exhibition "Into the Open"

Brooklyn Museum Reports Record Attendance of More than 80,000 Visitors at Target First Saturdays in Past Year

Cheekwood's Curator of Art Publishes New Book, Internationalizing the History of American Art

Juilliard Pianists Michael Brown and Eric Zuber are Winners of the 2009 Gina Bachauer Piano Competition

ICA/Boston Gives Teens the Floor in Groundbreaking Summer Convening with Arts Leaders

Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum Announces 2009-10 Schedule

Humanism in China: A Contemporary Record of Photography to Open at China Institute Gallery

Boston Center for the Arts Announces Call for Entries for The 21st Drawing Show

Solo Presentation by Michael Joaquin Grey at P. S. 1 Contemporary Art Center

July 4, 2009

First U.S. Exhibition of Venetian Renaissance Sculptor Tullio Lombardo at National Gallery

Bonhams Old Master Sale Offers Best Of The Grand Tour With Paintings by Classic Artists

Leading Artists and Thinkers Gather in Charles Darwin's Home Town to Celebrate his Lasting Legacy

Linked Hybrid by Steven Holl Architects Named 2009 "Best Tall Building" in Asia & Australia Category

Maurice de Vlaminck, a Fauve Instinct: Paintings from 1900 to 1915 on View at Caixaforum Barcelona

Dali Collection in Florida to Move to Hurricane-proof Building

Museum of Art Lucerne Opens Silence: A Selection of Works from the Collection

Jewish Museum Announces Reinventing Ritual: Contemporary Art and Design for Jewish Life

Joslyn Art Museum Presents an Exhibition of Devotional Images Called Retablos

Aperture Foundation Announces Winners of the Strand's First Ever Photography Contest

The Ashmolean Museum Acquires an Extensive Collection of Drawings by Tom Phillips RA

Weapons Collection, Witness of Mexican History

What Are You Like? Self-revealing Artworks by People in the Public Eye

Corcoran Presents Claudia Smigrod, Neighborhood Watch

New Orleans Museum of Art to Present Skylar Fein: Youth Manifesto

The National Gallery of Australia to be "Stitched Up" by a Tag Crew of Knitters as Part of a Festival

D Documenta: A Two-day Conference Towards Documeta 13

2008 Grange Prize Winner Sarah Anne Johnson Debuts Emotionally Charged New Exhibition at the AGO this Weekend

British Artist Richard Woods Whimsically Transforms Various Structural Elements at City Hall.

Call for Applications - Kuenstlerhaus Schloss Balmoral

July 3, 2009

Exhibition of 200 Images Lead Viewers through the Key Stages of Robert Capa's Career

Watercolours and Graphic Works by Emil Nolde on View at Berlin's Museum of Prints and Drawings

Albright-Knox Embarks on Plan to Sustain Artistic Mission and Address Financial Challenges

Leonardo da Vinci Puzzle Examined by Research and Exhibition of Budapest Horse at National Gallery

F/Stop Leipzig, International Photography Festival Asks Where do We Go from Here?

Sir Ian Wrigglesworth Steps Down as the Chair of the Board at Baltic Board

The European Biennial of Young Artists will be Back in Montrouge

Pioneering "Soul i-D"Exhibition to Tour to Christie's Rockefeller Center

New York State Museum Opens "1609" Exhibit Celebrating Henry Hudson

First Portrait Exhibition to Celebrate the Contribution of Gay People and Gay Icons at the National Portrait Gallery

Kokeshi: From Folk Art to Art Toy Exhibition to Feature Over 300 Dolls

University of the Arts Alumnus Arnold Roth Inducted into Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame

Antony Gormley's One & Other: Housewife from Sleaford Announced as First Plinth Participant

Nassau County Museum of Art Announces Norman Rockwell Exhibition in September

Teens Curate Exhibition of Student Work at Toledo Museum of Art

Jersey City Museum Receives Prestigious State Arts Award

Carnegie Museum of Art will Display Contest Winners' Photographs

"Faster Than a Speeding Bullet: The Art of the Superhero" Exhibition to Include "Action Comics #1"

Friends & Neighbors Exhibition Features Community Curators

New York Public Library's Mariners Harbor Branch Receives the 2009 Award for Excellence in Design

July 2, 2009

Christie's Auction of Post-War and Contemporary Art in London Realises $31.8 Million

Damien Hirst Refuses to Become Royal Academician at the Royal Academy of Arts

St. Louis Sculpture Park, Citygarden, Opens to the Public

Bravo is Sculpting a New Cast for "The Untitled Art Project"

Sears Tower Debuts Glass Walk Out and Skydeck Experience

Shepard Fairey Returns to ICA/Boston, Site of his First Major Museum Exhibition

Free Admission Boosts Sense of Public Ownership of National Museums in the UK

Nearly 30 Years of Collaborative Scholarship Culminate in the First Comprehensive Exhibition

The Royal Academy of Arts will Present GSK Contemporary 2009: Earth: Art of a Changing World

Philip Glass to Perform Etudes and Other Work for Solo Piano at Galleria dell'Accademia

Workshop Missoni: Daring to be Different Opens at Estorick Collection

Carl Gustav Carus: Nature and Idea Opens at Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

Chicago Artists Engage Audiences in a Dynamic Five-week Series at the Museum of Contemporary Art

Camera Work: Photography from the Permanent Collection on View at the Boca Raton Museum of Art

National Portrait Gallery Announces Finalists and Shortlisted Artists for the "Outwin Boochever Portrait Competition 200

New Time and Navigation Exhibit Is in the Works at the Smithsonian

Cultural Leaders from Across the World Come Together in London to Launch Leadership Programme

"On-site", Wall Paintings by Carlos Motta at P. S. 1 Contemporary Art Center

The J. Paul Getty Trust to Return Avery Index to Columbia University

Magnificent Selection of Chinese Red Lacquerware to be Shown at Metropolitan Museum This Summer

Most Popular Last Seven Days

1.- Boy and an amateur archaeologist unearth legendary Danish king's trove in Germany

2.- Exhibition at The Met illustrates what visitors encountered at The palace of Versailles

3.- Philadelphia Museum of Art opens "Modern Times: American Art 1910-1950"

4.- Exhibition at Michael Hoppen Gallery presents a cross-section of works from Thomas Mailaender's career

5.- New York's Chelsea Hotel celebrity door auction raises $400,000

6.- Stevie Ray Vaughan's first guitar drives Entertainment & Music Memorabilia Auction to nearly $2.9 million

7.- Lichtenstein's Nude with Blue Hair tops $2.4 million sale of Modern & Contemporary Prints & Multiples

8.- $6.7 million Fancy Intense Blue Diamond sets auction record at Sotheby's New York

9.- Mexico court blocks sales of controversial Frida Kahlo Barbie doll

10.- Dutch museums to conduct new research on the paintings of Pieter de Hooch

Museums, Exhibits, Artists, Milestones, Digital Art, Architecture, Photography,
Photographers, Special Photos, Special Reports, Featured Stories, Auctions, Art Fairs,
Anecdotes, Art Quiz, Education, Mythology, 3D Images, Last Week, .


Ignacio Villarreal
Editor & Publisher:Jose Villarreal - Consultant: Ignacio Villarreal Jr.
Art Director: Juan José Sepúlveda Ramírez

Royalville Communications, Inc
Founder's Site. The most varied versions
of this beautiful prayer.
to a Mexican poet.

The First Art Newspaper on the Net. The Best Versions Of Ave Maria Song Junco de la Vega Site Ignacio Villarreal Site
Tell a Friend
Dear User, please complete the form below in order to recommend the Artdaily newsletter to someone you know.
Please complete all fields marked *.
Sending Mail
Sending Successful