The first exhibition to examine the religious visual culture of 17th-century Spain and Latin America will open at the Indianapolis Museum of Art
on October 11, 2009. Sacred Spain: Art and Belief in the Spanish World brings to life the challenges faced by visual artists such as El Greco, Francisco Zurbarán, Alonso Cano, Franciso Ribalta, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Juan de Valdes Leal, Juan Correa, Cristobal Villalpando and others, who were charged with the creative task of making religious imagery that was useful, truthful and moving. The exhibition will feature 70 worksincluding paintings, polychrome sculpture, metalwork and books, many of which have never before been seen in the United Statesthat not only illustrate religious iconography and allegory, but also bring to light the significant role of the artist in 17th-century Spain. Sacred Spain will be on view exclusively at the IMA from October 11, 2009 through January 3, 2010.
A $1 million grant from the Allen Whitehill Clowes Charitable Foundation to support the exhibition will allow the IMA to offer free general admission to Sacred Spain, making the exhibition accessible to the broadest audience possible.
Exhibition highlights include:
The legendary golden Crown of the Andes, made to adorn a statue of the Virgin Mary, venerated as the Queen of the Andes. The crown celebrates the devotion of the faithful to their protectress and makes visible the mystical tie with divinity. Set with 447 emeralds, the crown is the oldest and largest collection of emeralds in the world and has rarely been displayed publicly.
A life-size and realistically-rendered sculpture, Juan Sánchez Barbas Cristo Yacente, which is featured in Holy Week processions in the Spanish town of Navalcarnero and has never been exhibited outside of the town.
Juan de Valdés Leals long-separated Allegory of Vanity and Allegory of Salvation, a pair of symbol-laden still lifes that contrast temporal attainments and eternal rewards.
A trompe loeil statue painting by Cristobal Villalpando of a famous miracle working image of the Virgen de la Soledad carved by Gaspar Becerra.
Francisco Zurbaráns Agnus Dei, an illusionistic rendering of a lamb bound for sacrifice and presented as the object of prayer.
The exhibition also features a number of important works that are otherwise inaccessible or only rarely displayed in public, including a sculpture by Pedro Roldán from the convent of Sta. Clara in Montilla, Fray Juan Riccis Pintura sabia from the library of the Fundación Lázaro Galdiano, and Juan Correas St. Luke from the upper reaches of an altarpiece in the church of La Profesa in Mexico City.
This groundbreaking exhibition offers a new perspective on the sacred art of the Spanish world during the baroque period. In a departure from usual museum practice, in which religious images are treated solely as historical or aesthetic artifacts, Sacred Spain: Art and Belief in the Spanish World recognizes the possibility of transcendent images and seeks to reassert the art museum as a primary venue for cultural interpretation based on a deeper understanding of the creation, reception and uses of art.
While the scenes depicted in these works may be familiar to many, Sacred Spain puts these paintings and sculptures in the context of a pivotal period in Spanish history, said Maxwell L. Anderson, the Melvin & Bren Simon Director & CEO of the IMA. This exhibition illuminates the remarkable role that the artist played at a time when art was believed to have divine power.
In an important sense, the exhibition is about the power of art, said Ronda Kasl, Senior Curator of Painting and Sculpture before 1800 at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. It features works of art that were created with explicit responsive goalsthey were meant to arouse wonder, devotion and identification. We hope that viewers will be moved by the sheer visual impact of these works.
The exhibition will be divided into six key sections: In Defense of Images; True Likeness; Moving Images; With the Eyes of the Soul; Visualizing Sanctity; and Living with Images.
In Defense of Images
Sacred Spain will begin with an introduction to the essential elements of Spanish Catholic religious practice as they relate to images. These were used to aid memory, inspire devotion and convey the worshiper toward contemplation of the divine. Faced with persistent accusations of idolatry, the Council of Trent (1545-63) previously had reaffirmed the usefulness of images for the instruction of the faithful and set the stage for an intense preoccupation with the theological arguments that shaped creative practice in 17th-century Spanish culture. This section features works by painter-theorists such as Francisco Pacheco, Fray Juan Ricci, Pablo de Céspedes and others, including Juan de Valdés Leal, who contemplates the potential for creative human action, and the resulting attainment of glory or hell, in his Allegories of Vanity and Salvation.
Sacred Spain also will explore the idea that some religious images offered the possibility of divine presence. Some images owed their sacredness to a supposedly miraculous origin. The theological justification for the veneration of these works depended upon the acceptance that they were not made by mortals. Countless portraits of the Virgin are ascribed to the hand of St. Luke, while the face of Christ impressed on Veronicas veil and the Virgin of Guadalupe on Juan Diegos cloak are believed to have been transferred through direct physical contact with the divine. El Grecos trompe-loeil Veronica bears the miraculous impression of Christs bloodied face and implies the presence of the actual relic of the sacred cloth. Alonso López de Herreras Holy Face, an image he replicated many times, was proclaimed a true effigy and authenticated by his signature.
In other cases, the religious authority of an image resides in its convincing, sometimes exaggerated, lifelikeness, conveyed through artistic means such as realism or illusionism. The latter is powerfully on display in Zurbaráns Agnus Dei, which presents a lamb bound for slaughter as the object of prayer, challenging the boundary that exists between the representation of the sacred and its actual presence.
One of the most compelling justifications for the use of religious imagery was its ability to provoke empathetic response and move the beholder toward contemplation of God. Spanish art often manifests the divine in terms that are both palpable and proximate, underscoring the role of the senses in apprehending purely spiritual qualities. Artists employed a wide range of techniques, but most of them shared the aim of intensifying emotional response. This is especially apparent in representations of Christs Passion, a subject that lends itself to the vivid depiction of human suffering. This section will feature works by both painters and sculptors, including Bartolomé Estebán Murillo, Alonso Cano, Antonio Pereda, Mateo Cerezo and Juan Sánchez Barba.
With the Eyes of the Soul
The works in this section of the exhibition reflect deliberate efforts by artists to render purely spiritual values in visual form. The exhibition considers the ways in which artists depicted visionary experiences and expressed what was at once unknowable and unrepresentable. Similarly, it explores the religious practices and aspirations that informed and motivated these artistic representations. Key works include Francisco Camilos painting of a vision experienced by the Spanish mystic St. John of God, who receives a Crown of Thorns upon contemplating an image of the Crucifixion. Similarly, Cristóbal Villalpando depicts a rapturous St. Teresa being clothed by the Virgin and St. Joseph in a shining garment and a golden collar. The artistic challenge of representing such a vision is suggested by the saint herself, who wrote that the experience was beyond human understanding or imagining, and so beautiful that in comparison, everything on earth appeared to be a smudge of soot. In contrast, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo endows the visionary realm of St. Rose of Lima, who is visited by her divine suitor as she sews, with the physical appearance of the real world.
The visual representation of sanctity constitutes one of the most fertile areas of Hispanic artistic production in the 17th century. Saints were the protagonists of a religious history that was continually updated through the addition of new episodes that featured both historical and contemporary acts of heroism, holiness and virtue. Images of the saints were of fundamental importance in the promotion of the faith, and artists were faced with the problematic task of creating likenesses of them. The motive of truthful portrayal underlies the diffusion of images like Alonso Canos Miraculous Portrait of St. Dominic at Soriano, depicting the portrait of St. Dominic said to have been given by the Virgin Mary to the monks of Soriano and Antonio Montúfars stark effigy of St. Francis, based on Pope Nicolas Vs contemplation of the saints mortal remains. Insistence on the necessity of truthful likenesses of the saints also resulted in portraits of individuals renowned for their saintliness, including Diego Velázquezs arresting fulllength portrait of Madre Jerónima de la Fuente.
Living with Images
The final section of exhibition focuses on images created for use by individual worshipers, both lay and religious. Such images functioned as visual aids to prayer and meditation, practiced privately in the confines of home and cloister. The goal of these prayers was nothing less than spiritual perfection: to rise above mundane reality and achieve a closer union with God. Images connected with this pursuit provide an inventory of the religious values of the Spanish world and an index of its spiritual aesthetics. Works, including Francisco Ribaltas double portrait of a nobleman and his wife displaying a devotional image of St. Joseph and the pregnant Mary, chart the intimate, interactive relationship between worshiper and image and explore the visual strategies used by artists to activate memory and arouse response.
A two-day symposium titled Sacred and Profane in the Early Modern Hispanic World will be held on October 16 and 17, 2009, coinciding with the IMA exhibition Sacred Spain: Art and Belief in the Spanish World. Symposium topics will include 1) The Irreligious, dealing with cultural production that rejected Catholic orthodoxy; 2) The Non-religious, in which the discourse of religion stands aside from cultural production; 3) Classical Myth and its engagement and/or distancing from Catholic culture; 4) Sacred Others: Jewish, Islamic and Pre-Columbian religious perspectives; 5) Empire and Religion, on the implication of religion into this expansive mindset; and 6) Text and the Sacred Image, investigating interrelationships among texts and the visual.
The first day will take place at the IMA, and the second day will take place at Indiana University in Bloomington, Ind. The symposium, organized in conjunction with the Departments of Spanish and Portuguese and the History of Art at Indiana University, will bring together internationally recognized scholars from the fields of art history, literature, sociology, language and history. Sessions in Bloomington and Indianapolis will present a broad spectrum of interdisciplinary approaches to the themes raised in the exhibition.